Research Tips

February 6, 2009
Health problems caused by iron deficiency may go undiagnosed for a long time when more sensitive indicators of iron status are not measured. Ask your doctor for a full panel of iron blood tests if you think you are running low on iron.
Am J Nephrol. 2007;27(6):565-71

February 9, 2009
Since only animal foods contain significant amounts of vitamin B-12, people consuming vegan and macrobiotic diets are at risk for B-12 deficiency. Studies on these groups have reported poor B-12 status in as many as 90 percent of the study participants.
Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44(5-6):229-34

February 21, 2009
Consuming adequate amounts of folic acid is important to overall health. However, taking high dose folic acid supplements can interfere with the timely diagnosis of vitamin B-12 deficiency that is common in older people and strict vegetarians.
Nutr Rev. 2004 Jun;62(6 Pt 2):S3-12.

February 25, 2009
The fear of getting too much iron in their diet seems to be causing many seniors to get too little iron. The health consequences of both extremes are serious. When making diet changes for health, remember iron is an essential nutrient.
Am Fam Physician. 2000 Oct 1;62(7):1565-72.

March 12, 2009
Vertigo and dizziness are most often related to inner ear problems or the side effects of drugs. Another possible cause is iron deficiency (even without anemia). If other causes of dizziness are not established, iron status should be thoroughly evaluated.
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2005 Mar;23(1):28-33.

May 9, 2009
The most common conditions linked to low magnesium intake are high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. That’s a good reason to include green vegetables, beans, whole grains, and nuts in your daily diet.
Magnes Res. 2008 Jun;21(2):77-82.

July 18, 2009
Because prepared and fast-food products in the U.S. usually do not contain iodized salt, researchers fear that poor iodine nutrition may be causing many health problems.
Environ Sci Technol, 42 (4), 1315-1323, 2008.

August 3, 2009
Modern cases of rickets have occurred when well-intentioned parents fed their infants macrobiotic diets that lacked a dietary source of vitamin D. Particularly for infants and toddlers, milk alternatives should be fortified with vitamin D since this may be the sole source of nutrients for the child.
Pediatrics. 2001 Apr;107(4):E46.

August 4, 2009
It is well known that vitamin D deficiency leads to weakened bones. However, more recent research also links low vitamin D levels to increased risk of many other health problems, including certain types of cancer, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and even diabetes.
Nutr Rev. 2008 Oct;66(10 Suppl 2):S182-94.

August 25, 2009
Inadequate dietary zinc depresses immune function, making a person more vulnerable to infectious diseases. Diets devoid of animal foods tend to increase the risk of zinc deficiency because beans and whole grains contain phytates that inhibit the absorption of zinc.
J Am Coll Nutr. 1988 Oct;7(5):377-84.

August 29, 2009
Studies show that thyroid function can be impaired by a nutrient deficiency of iodine, iron, vitamin A, or selenium. Like other parts of the body, the small thyroid gland depends on multiple nutrients from ample amounts of a wide variety of foods in the diet.
Thyroid. 2002 Oct;12(10):867-78.

August 31, 2009
A diet low in magnesium contributes to several chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, poor blood lipid patterns, and high blood glucose. Consuming a variety of green vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and beans helps to get adequate magnesium.
Nutr Clin Pract. 2008 Apr-May;23(2):142-51.

September 2, 2009
Vitamin B-12 deficiency can seriously damage the nervous system. The risk of B-12 deficiency is greatest for the elderly and vegetarians. Blood tests for levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine assist physicians in the evaluation of B-12 status.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Dec 10;149(50):2789-94.

September 4, 2009
The average adult in the U.S. consumes only 75 to 80 percent of recommended intake for the essential mineral magnesium. Low magnesium intake likely contributes to many chronic ailments. A diet with a wide variety of unprocessed wholesome foods can easily meet magnesium needs.
Magnes Res. 2008 Jun;21(2):77-82.

September 6, 2009
Vitamin D plays important roles in the function of the immune system. If you wear sunscreen, avoid the sun, and/or have dark skin, you are more likely to need sources of vitamin D from food or supplements.
Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40.

September 14, 2009
Vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms are subtle and are not easily diagnosed. Sixty percent of deficiencies are due to insufficient dietary intake and malabsorption. Taking a preventive B-12 supplement is commonly recommended for those entering their sixth or seventh decades of life.
CMAJ. 2004 Aug 3;171(3):251-9.

September 27, 2009
It is common knowledge that iodine is essential for normal function of the thyroid gland. Less widely appreciated is the fact that normal iron status also is essential for production of the thyroid hormone.
Thyroid. 2002 Oct;12(10):867-78.

October 20, 2009
Vitamin D deficiency is making a comeback and the consequences include bone loss, impaired immune function, and even loss of muscle strength. Major food sources are fortified milk, fish, and fortified foods like orange juice with added calcium and vitamin D.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):6-18.

October 25, 2009
Iron deficiency is one of the most common and serious nutrition problems in the world. Some types of hair loss are among the many possible effects of iron deficiency.
Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002 Jul;27(5):396-404.

November 19, 2009
Good vitamin D status is important for the immune system and may be especially important during the flu season. When we limit sunshine exposure, it is important to get vitamin D from foods like fatty fish and fortified milk or dietary supplements.
Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40.

November 20, 2009
Recommendations to meet daily iron needs assume that the diet includes animal foods. A diet based only on plant foods needs to contain nearly twice as much iron due to limited absorption of iron from plant foods.
Dietary Reference Intakes for Iron

December 29, 2009
New research indicates that a variety of emerging health problems may be caused decreased iodine in the U.S. food supply. When you use salt, select the iodized type.
Environ Sci Technol, 42 (4), 1315-1323, 2008.

February 6, 2010
Health problems caused by iron deficiency may go undiagnosed if the deficiency does not produce anemia. This "nonanemic" iron deficiency may have negative effects on brain development during infancy.
Am Fam Physician. 2002 Oct 1;66(7):1217-24.

February 7, 2010
Iodine is an essential nutrient for nerve development in infants and thyroid function at any age. For some people, iodized salt is a major source of this mineral and cutting back on salt can decrease iodine intake.
Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 (4), 1315–1323, 2008.

March 17, 2010
The classic sign of B-12 deficiency is anemia, causing increased fatigue. B-12 deficiency can also manifest itself as short-term memory problems similar to early Alzheimer's disease. Taking a preventive B-12 supplement is recommended for those entering their sixth or seventh decades of life.
CMAJ. 2004 Aug 3;171(3):251-9.

August 13, 2010
According to recent research, levels of the essential nutrient iodine have declined in the American diet over the past two decades. As people decrease their intake of iodized salt, it becomes more important to include seafood in the diet on a regular basis.
Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 (4), 1315–1323, 2008.

September 7, 2010
Vitamin D plays important roles in the function of the immune system. Avoiding sun exposure may benefit skin health, but a lack of sunshine does increase your need for food or dietary supplement sources of vitamin D.
Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40.

September 20, 2010
Dehydration can adversely affect many body functions, especially in older adults. Even something as basic as balance can be impaired, leading to an increased risk of falling.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb;64(2):115-23.

October 8, 2010
Most Americans consume only 75 to 80 % of the magnesium recommended for long term health. Green vegetables, beans, and whole grains (including brown rice), are good food sources of magnesium.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Apr 15;105(15):5768-73.

October 19, 2010
Iodized salt is the major source of essential iodine in many people’s diets. When salt is restricted in the diet, alternative sources of iodine need to be included to avoid iodine deficiency and thyroid problems. Food sources include seafood and foods from plants grown near the ocean.
Am J Hypertens. 2010 Oct;23(10):1095-102.

October 24, 2010
Pagophagy is the medical term for the drive to consume copious amounts of ice. People with this condition frequently are deficient in iron and correcting the deficiency eliminates the craving.
Annu Rev Nutr. 2010 Aug 21;30:403-22.

November 5, 2010
Too much or too little of some nutrients can change the senses of taste and smell. For example, a deficient or imbalanced intake of iron or zinc can eventually impair normal sensitivity to flavors and odors.
Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Jul;136(7):673-6.

November 24, 2010
The most common conditions linked to chronically low magnesium intake include high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Spinach, nuts, seeds, beans, and brown rice are all reasonable sources of magnesium.
Magnes Res. 2009 Dec;22(4):235-46.

December 20, 2010
Excessive alcohol consumption increases a person's requirement for thiamin (vitamin B-1). Symptoms associated with B-1 deficiency include: erratic eye movements, staggering gait and deranged mental functions.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Dec;33(12):2750-61.

January 4, 2011
January is Thyroid Awareness Month! Thyroid function can be impaired by a dietary deficiency of iodine, iron, selenium, and/or vitamin A. To keep your thyroid in shape, eat a wide variety of foods from all the major food groups.
Thyroid. 2002 Oct;12(10):867-78.

January 19, 2011
A common condition called Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is often caused by iron deficiency. RLS researchers recommend that serum ferritin, a blood index of body iron stores, be greater than 50 ng/ml.
Mov Disord. 2008 Jun 15;23(8):1184-7.

May 3, 2011
If you frequently have an irritation or a cut at the corners of your mouth, your diet might be low in vitamin B-2. Reasonable sources of B-2 (riboflavin) include fortified cereals, milk and other dairy products, almonds, and meats.
Med J Aust. 1984 Nov 10;141(10):635-7.

August 16, 2011
Obesity appears to impair iron status by raising the levels of a hormone called hepcidin. This hormone reduces the body's absorption of iron from the diet.
Obesity (2010) 18 7, 1449–1456.

December 11, 2011
Low vitamin D status now has been shown to be more common in obese children than normal weight children and it appears to be associated with increased insulin resistance. Consuming milk, other vitamin D fortified beverages, and fatty fish can increase vitamin D in the diet.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print]

February 10, 2012
Legumes like soybeans contain iron in a form called ferritin. This is the form that the human body uses to store iron. New research indicates that legume ferritin is reasonably well absorbed by the human intestine. However, it is not known how well this form of iron will improve the iron status of an iron deficient individual.
J Nutr. 2012 Jan 18. [Epub ahead of print]

March 22, 2012
There is growing evidence that sun exposure does not produce adequate amounts of vitamin D for many people. Food and supplemental sources of the vitamin appear to be the best option.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jun;92(6):2130-5.

March 30, 2012
Growing knowledge about our genetic differences should eventually lead to gene-based personalized nutrition recommendations. New research on genetic variations in an enzyme associated with folic acid provides insight on how genetic differences can affect nutrient need.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun;93(6):1365-72. Epub 2011 Apr 20.

April 3, 2012
A new report summarizing biochemical indicators of the nutritional status of the U.S. population identifies iodine, iron and vitamin D as the most commonly deficient nutrients.
Second National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the U.S. Population

May 15, 2012
Correcting specific nutrient inadequacies is known to significantly reduce chronic disease risk. In a recent study, a scientifically designed nutrition bar was shown to improve several biomarkers of chronic disease risk factors in 25 normal healthy adults in just two weeks.
FASEB J. 2012 May 1. [Epub ahead of print]

June 14, 2012
When vitamin D status is assessed, the blood level of a form of the vitamin called 25-hydroxy vitamin D is measured. Normal liver production of this compound is dependent on iron. Consequently, iron deficiency may promote poor vitamin D status.
Arch Dis Child. 1986 Sep;61(9):843-8.

September 27, 2012
Although nutritionists often encourage people to meet their nutrient needs from eating a wide variety of wholesome foods, fortified foods have had a very impressive track record of decreasing nutrient-related health problems. For example, fortification of flour with folic acid has substantially reduced the incidence of neural tube defects in infants.
J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:492353.

February 25, 2013
The American Academy of Pediatrics has stressed that iron deficiency, even without anemia, is strongly associated with adverse neurological development in infants and toddlers. A Boston study used a sensitive screening tool for iron deficiency in 8 to 18 month old children. They found that almost half of the children were iron deficient. However, 84 percent of the iron deficient children were not anemic - the most common measure used to assess iron status.
JAMA Pediatr. Feb 18, 2013. [Epub ahead of print]

March 15, 2013
Iron deficiency is a major factor damaging the health of many women and children around the world. The iron deficient condition can be aggravated by a deficient intake of other nutrients such as vitamins A, B2, B6, B12, E and folate.
Nutritional Anemia, 2007.

March 18, 2013
It has been shown that smokers require greater amounts of vitamin C than non-smokers. New Danish research indicates that good vitamin D status also is important to reduce the smoking-related cancer risk of smokers.
Clinical Chemistry. March 2013. [Epub ahead of print]

March 30, 2013
Young children are especially vulnerable to iron deficiency during the first 5 years of life due to the demands of rapid growth. It has been estimated that 80% of the world's children are iron deficient. Since poor iron status impairs brain development, childhood iron deficiency can have a severe lifelong impact on its victims.
Eur J Clin Nutr. March 27, 2013. [Epub ahead of print]

April 11, 2013
Improving iron status in those with iron deficiency can be challenging due to negative gastrointestinal effects of high doses of iron. After 100 days of iron supplementation, iron status of children (3 to 5 years old) improved similarly with doses of 20 or 40 mg per day, however, a weekly dose of 40 mg was much less effective.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 343-347 (April 2013) | doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.13

June 30, 2013
A new study indicates that the composition of our intestinal bacterial population can affect vitamin D status. Supplementing 66 people with a Lactobacillus bacteria for 9 weeks increased average vitamin D status significantly compared to a placebo group.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Apr 22. [Epub ahead of print]

July 30, 2013
Adding a chunk of iron to various foods during preparation was found to significantly increase iron content. To help make this practice more acceptable to a Cambodian population with very high rates of iron deficiency anemia, the iron "chunks" were made in the form of a "lucky fish."
Trop Med Int Health. 2011 Dec;16(12):1518-24.

September 24, 2013
Changes in the appearance of the tongue and inside of the mouth can be clues of nutrient deficiencies. An ongoing deficient intake of some B vitamins, vitamin C, or iron can cause a variety of signs and symptoms.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113:693-701.

September 24, 2013
Changes in the appearance of the tongue and inside of the mouth can be clues of nutrient deficiencies. An ongoing deficient intake of some B vitamins, vitamin C, or iron can cause a variety of signs and symptoms.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113:693-701.

September 25, 2013
Changes in the appearance of the tongue and inside of the mouth can be clues of nutrient deficiencies. An ongoing deficient intake of some B vitamins, vitamin C, or iron can cause a variety of signs and symptoms.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113:693-701.

October 6, 2013
A study of Peruvian babies found that those borne by iron deficient mothers were able to absorb a greater percentage of the iron from their food than babies of mothers with adequate iron status. However, the babies of iron deficient mothers were shorter and weighed less.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2 Oct 2013. [Epub ahead of print]

October 9, 2013
Basic research on the effects of zinc deficiency in yeast cells shows that certain proteins fold abnormally which disrupts their normal function. This abnormal protein folding is similar to what is observed in some age-related brain diseases in humans. Understanding this process in yeast cells may lead to research in human cells to see if zinc is involved in brain disease.
J Biol Chem. 2013 Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print]

November 18, 2013
When the body is deficient in an essential vitamin or mineral, it can influence gene expression and cause the level of specific proteins to decrease or increase. Scientists are using this concept to evaluate nutrient status by measuring the blood levels of specific proteins. This promises to provide a much quicker and less expensive way to evaluate vitamin and mineral status.
J Nutr. 2013 Oct;143(10):1540-8.

January 16, 2014
Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common problem in older people and those who do not consume animal foods. Probably the best current test for B12 status is measurement of blood levels of methylmalonic acid. Its levels increase as B12 status declines. A new rapid analysis technique will help to make assessment of B12 status simpler and much quicker.
J Chromatography B. 2011;879(19):1502-1506.

February 21, 2014
During pregnancy, both vitamin A deficiency and excessive intake can be very damaging to the developing fetus. New results from a study using a mouse model found that vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy caused the offspring to have lung developmental problems that commonly trigger asthma.
J Clin Invest. 2014 Feb 3;124(2):801-11.

February 23, 2014
A new study confirms older research that showed iron deficiency increases platelet aggregation, making the blood more "sticky." This is likely to increase the risk of having a stroke.
PLoS ONE 9(2): e88812.

March 2, 2014
Choline is essential for normal function of all cells, including brain cells. The intake of choline by older children, men, women, and pregnant women is far below recommended adequate intake levels. Two of the richest sources of choline are eggs and meat.
Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov;67(11):615-23.

April 1, 2014
Don't tell villains that dwell on the dark side, but researchers have proposed that the reason that good generally triumphs over evil is because the villains are likely deficient in vitamin D! Honest, this is not just an April Fool's joke, there is a real journal reference for this daily tip.
Med J Aust 2013; 199 (11): 805-806.

September 7, 2014
A study of 1000 infants and toddlers (age 6 to 30 months), in low- to middle-income neighborhoods in New Delhi, reported that more than of two-thirds of the children were anemic. The researchers attributed this to diets that were deficient in iron, folate, and vitamin B12.
Nutrition. 2014 May;30(5):531-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2013.09.015. Epub 2013 Oct 15.

September 11, 2014
Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency, affecting at least two billion people around the world. For many people, the major sources of iron in the diet are grains and legumes. Unfortunately, these foods contain substances that strongly inhibit the absorption of iron by the intestine. Plant breeding that increases iron in these foods also needs to focus on decreasing inhibitors such as phytate.
J. Nutr. November 1, 2014. [Epub ahead of print]

September 19, 2014
Vitamin E Deficiency: It is estimated that at least 90 percent of Americans consume less than the estimated requirement for the average person. The adverse consequences of inadequate vitamin E include increased infection, anemia, stunting of growth, and poor outcomes during pregnancy for both infant and mother.
Adv Nutr vol. 5: 503-514, 2014.

November 10, 2014
Vitamin B12 Status Assessment: New research shows that assessment of vitamin B12 status can be done accurately from finger stick blood drops after the blood has dried. This new technique, that measures methylmalonic acid (an indicator of B12 function), promises to make screening for B12 status much simpler for the clinician.
J Nutr. 2014 Oct;144(10):1658-63.

November 12, 2014
Compulsive Ice Chewing in Iron Deficiency: Many people with iron deficiency develop pagophagia (compulsive ice chewing). A study of people with iron deficiency anemia found that ice chewing enhanced performance on testing of neuropsychological function. The researchers propose that the cold exposure of ice chewing may trigger increased blood flow to the brain.
Med Hypotheses. 2014 Oct;83(4):473-6.

December 24, 2014
Nutrition at Conception: Research on people who were conceived during the Dutch Famine (winter of 1944-1945) indicates that the starvation conditions affected the regulation of their DNA expression in a variety of ways. One consequence of this is a tendency to have higher LDL cholesterol levels as adults.
Nat Commun. 2014 Nov 26;5:5592.

January 20, 2015
Folic Acid Fortification of Flour: Since we started adding folic acid to most refined wheat flour products in 1998, the number of babies born with birth defects affecting the brain and spinal cord (neural tube defects) declined by about 35 percent. Enriched white flour contains much more folic acid than corn or whole wheat flours. If you don't eat white flour products, make sure you have other good sources of folic acid in your diet - leafy greens, lentils, orange juice, and many fortified breakfast cereals.
CDC MMWR Report. January 16, 2015. 64(01);1-5.

January 22, 2015
Obesity and Nutrient Deficiency: A large study of over 18,000 adults in the U.S. found that obese people were more likely to have inadequate intakes of key nutrients such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium, and magnesium. Since this study estimated nutrient intake from self-reported food intake, it needs to be confirmed with more rigorous study designs.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Jan 7:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]

January 26, 2015
Vitamin A and Type 2 Diabetes: Adult mice consuming a vitamin A deficient diet developed high blood glucose that was associated with impaired pancreas function. This study showed that the function of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas is especially dependent on normal vitamin A status. Adequate vitamin A nutrition also may be important in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes people.
J Biol Chem. 2014 Dec 1. pii: [Epub ahead of print]

February 15, 2015
Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: The results of a study on over 2,000 people in Finland, found that those with lower vitamin D status during their child and teen years had greater left carotid artery thickness, an indicator of developing cardiovascular disease. Not meeting nutrient needs, especially during developmental years, can have a life-long impact on health.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb 10:jc20143944. [Epub ahead of print]

February 26, 2015
Vitamin D and Diabetes: People with prediabetes or diabetes were found to have lower vitamin D status than those with normal blood sugar control. Despite this association with diabetes, body weight and obesity were unrelated to vitamin D status. More research is needed to see if vitamin D supplementation of diabetics can help their blood glucose control.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb 23:jc20143016.

March 9, 2015
Vitamin E Under-consumed: The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee found that 90 percent of adults in the U.S. do not consume the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamin E. Theoretically, 50 percent of the population requires more than the EAR, so this level of vitamin E intake is likely contributing to a variety of health problems that include Alzheimer's disease, liver disease, and miscarriages during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee.

April 3, 2015
Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Elderly: Vitamin B12 status can be difficult to evaluate in older people. Despite normal blood levels of B12, markers of B12 function often still indicate a deficient state. New research reports that this is more likely to occur when a person is experiencing increased oxidative stress.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan 7.

April 9, 2015
Sodium and Potassium Recommendations: Another study finds that the current recommendations for cutting down sodium and increasing potassium are too extreme. About three out of 1000 people in the U.S. meet these recommendations. One study found that the few people who met potassium recommendations accomplished it mainly by drinking lots of coffee.
BMJ Open. 2015 Mar 20;5(3):e006625.

April 12, 2015
The metal zinc is an essential nutrient that has 100s of functions in the body. Among other things, zinc deficiency impairs the senses of taste and smell. The best absorbed sources of zinc are meat, poultry, and fish.
Yakugaku Zasshi. 2008 Mar;128(3):333-9.

April 19, 2015
Hair loss and Nutrition. Hair thinning is sometimes a sign of inadequate iron in the diet. Physicians who specialize in treating hair thinning prefer to see the index of body iron stores (ferritin) at a level greater than 70 ng/ml.
Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002 Jul;27(5):396-404.

April 29, 2015
Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure: A study that followed over 2000 adolescent black and white girls for 10 years found that those with higher levels of potassium in the diet had lower blood pressure. The level of sodium intake, however, had no effect on blood pressure.
JAMA Pediatr. April 27, 2015. [Epub ahead of print]

May 19, 2015
Vitamin B12 and Cardiovascular Disease: Vitamin B12 deficiency can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Vegetarians often have inadequate vitamin B12 status due to low amounts of the vitamin in their diet. To lower their risk of heart disease, most vegetarians need to take B12 supplements and/or consume B12-fortified foods.
Am J Prev Med. 2015;48(6):e11-e26.

May 26, 2015
Vitamin E and Muscle: Vitamin E functions as an antioxidant throughout the body. Muscle weakness is one of the major effects of vitamin E deficiency. This appears to be due to vitamin E playing an essential role in muscle cell membrane repair. Consequently, low vitamin E status is likely to impair muscle recovery from exercise.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2015 Apr 3;84:246-253.

May 27, 2015
Blood Donation and Iron Status: Maintaining healthy blood donors requires adequate replacement of iron lost from the body in donated blood. Female donors are at greater risk than men of developing iron deficiency due to having much greater iron needs. For frequent blood donors, it is very difficult to replace iron by diet alone. Iron supplementation is usually required.
Transfusion Med. June 2014;(2):1-11.

June 11, 2015
Vitamin D in Pediatric Burn Recovery: The stress of suffering from a severe burn appears to lower vitamin D status and this can persist long after the burn. Even with vitamin D supplementation, 25 percent of pediatric burn patients showed evidence of deficiency one year after the burn.
J Parenter Enteral Nutr. June 9, 2015. [Epub ahead of print]

June 14, 2015
Importance of Hydration: Summer heat increases water needs. Severe dehydration can lead to a medical emergency. Less severe chronic under-hydration has fewer obvious signs but can lead to problems like kidney stones, blood pressure fluctuations, headaches and intestinal problems.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Dec;57 Suppl 2:S19-23.

June 29, 2015
Urine Color and Hydration: Even mild dehydration can affect brain function in adults and children. A new study found that children age 8 to 14 can accurately evaluate their hydration status with a urine color gauge. However, if you use urine color to evaluate your hydration, remember that taking a supplement containing vitamin B2 (riboflavin) can make urine very yellow in color for a few hours even if your hydration status is good.
Eur J Nutr. 2015 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print]

July 10, 2015
Vitamin D: Genetics, skin pigmentation, and sun exposure all affect how much vitamin D you need in your diet and/or supplements. A recent study with vitamin D deficient African Americans found that supplementation with the currently recommended 600 IU per day was not adequate to raise their blood levels of vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) to the preferred level during a 16-week period of supplementation. Doses of 2000 and 4000 IU did raise blood vitamin D to the preferred level. 4000 IU per day is currently considered to be the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin D.
BMC Obesity 2015, 2:27.

July 19, 2015
Iodine and Foods: Restaurant and fast-food products, as well as many prepared foods in the U.S. do not contain iodized salt. Therefore researchers fear that poor iodine nutrition may be causing or aggravating many of today's health problems.
Environ Sci Technol, 42 (4), 1315-1323, 2008.

July 27, 2015
Iodine and Cardiovascular Health: Iodine deficiency disrupts the normal production of thyroid hormone which affects many body functions. Among the many consequences of iodine deficiency is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with increased blood levels of LDL cholesterol.
J Nutr. 2015 Jul 22. pii: jn213439. [Epub ahead of print]

August 30, 2015
B12 and Blood Tests: Vitamin B-12 deficiency can seriously damage the nervous system. The risk of B-12 deficiency is greatest for the elderly and vegetarians. Blood tests for levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine assist physicians in the evaluation of B-12 status.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Dec 10;149(50):2789-94.

September 12, 2015
Restless Legs Syndrome: Various nutrient deficiencies may play a role in Restless Legs Syndrome. Iron deficiency is the most likely contributor. Deficiencies of folic acid and vitamin B-12 also may be part of the cause in some people.
Altern Med Rev. 2007 Jun;12(2):101-12.

September 28, 2015
High Folate Rice: Folate deficiency is a major health problem in many parts of the world. A deficiency of this B vitamin seriously damages normal fetal neurological development among a host of other problems. Researchers at Ghent University in Belgium have developed a way to not only increase the folate content of rice, but also to put the folate in a form that does not degrade in storage. This promises to be a very valuable technology to reduce folate deficiency world-wide.
Nat Biotechnol. 2015 Sep 21. [Epub ahead of print]

October 9, 2015
Vitamin E and Metabolic Syndrome: People with metabolic syndrome have excess belly fat, elevated blood pressure, low "good" cholesterol, and high levels of blood glucose and triglycerides. A new study found that people with this syndrome require more vitamin E than people without this syndrome.
Am J Clin Nutr. Oct 7 2015. [Epub ahead of print]

October 22, 2015
Rice Fortification: Wheat flour is easy to fortify and has been enriched with key vitamins and iron for decades. Enrichment of rice with similar nutrients could benefit many populations that rely primarily on rice as their staple food. However, rice fortification is not as simple. The best technique to reliably provide added nutrients to rice appears to be rice extrusion using a dough made from rice that is mixed with micronutrients and extruded to create a fortified rice-like product. Consumer acceptance of this form of rice may be the challenge.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD009902.

October 25, 2015
Hair Loss: Iron deficiency is one of the most common and serious nutrition problems in the world. Some types of hair loss are among the many possible effects of iron deficiency.
Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002 Jul;27(5):396-404.

October 28, 2015
B12, Dementia and Stroke: Chronic vitamin B12 deficiency can cause dementia and stroke. The deficiency is common in older people and its diagnosis often is missed by health care providers. Diagnosis of the deficiency is not difficult, but it requires the appropriate blood tests. Treating or preventing B12 deficiency can be accomplished by vitamin B12 injections or daily supplementation.
Nutrition Research. 21 October 2015. [Epub ahead of print]

November 4, 2015
Obesity and Vitamin E Needs: New research indicates that obese people absorb vitamin E less efficiently than those of normal body weight. These results suggest that vitamin E recommendations should be increased for those with obesity.
Am J Clin Nutr, 2015; 102 (5):1070-1080.

December 1, 2015
Belly Fat and Vitamin D: A study of over 1000 adults in China found that those with more abdominal (visceral) fat had lower vitamin D status. Vitamin D requirements may be greater in people with more body fat.
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2015 Nov 25;12:50.

December 15, 2015
Nutrition for Heart and Head: Two new studies separately provide evidence that blood values for two key nutrients are associated with health and optimal function. Low omega-3 fatty acid levels were associated with an increase in heart attacks and low iron status (even mild iron deficiency) impaired various measures of cognitive function.
J Nutr. December 9, 2015. [Epub ahead of print]

February 14, 2016
Iodine Deficiencies: In the U.S., iodized salt has been a major source of the essential nutrient iodine. With the encouragements to cut back on salt, it is important to make sure that people still meet their need for iodine.
Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 (4), 1315–1323, 2008.

March 14, 2016
Often Forgotten Iron Deficiency Symptoms: Swallowing Difficulty and Fingernails: An interesting case study in an open-access journal shows a classic case of seemingly unrelated signs of potential long-term iron deficiency - difficulty swallowing and flattened or spooned fingernails.
Clin Case Rep. 2015 Nov 3;3(12):1054-5.

April 12, 2016
Plant Food Iron Sources: Because iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world, researchers have been working to decrease known inhibitors of iron absorption. Although developing beans with lower amounts of the iron absorption inhibitor phytate showed some promise, the lower phytate beans also caused unacceptable gastrointestinal problems.
J Nutr. 2016 Mar 30. [Epub ahead of print]

April 27, 2016
Vitamin D Deficiency: Darker skin is a human evolutionary adaptation to sunny environments. When dark skin individuals, like most African Americans, live in environments with less sun exposure, vitamin D synthesis can drop to low levels. Low vitamin D status is being linked to alterations in gene expression that might increase the risk of developing cancer and cardiovascular disease.
PLoS One. 2016 Apr 6;11(4):e0152849.

April 28, 2016
Hydration: A review of national data on water consumption by researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that the average American is consuming reasonable amounts of water. However, the average water intake by both men and women over age 60 is lower than recommended.
NCHS Data Brief No. 242, April 2016.

May 24, 2016
Vitamin A and the Heart: Using a mouse model, researchers found that eating a vitamin A-deficient diet altered how genes were expressed in heart cells. Vitamin A has many functions and it even appears to play an important role in heart function.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016 Apr 15. [Epub ahead of print]

May 26, 2016
Iodine Decline: The trend toward reducing salt intake and switching from common iodized salt to uniodized specialty salts like sea salt, kosher salt, etc. appears to be contributing to a decline in the U.S. consumption of iodine. This reduced iodine intake, along with low iron status contributes to thyroid malfunction.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 May 18. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.82. [Epub ahead of print]

June 3, 2016
Dehydration in Old Age: A common way to evaluate dehydration in young to middle-age adults is to measure the concentration of their urine (osmolality). New research indicates that this measure does not accurately determine hydration status in older people because of common age-related changes in kidney function. Blood tests (osmolality) are much more reliable for assessing hydration status in older people.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 May 25. [Epub ahead of print]

June 13, 2016
Zinc Deficiency: An interesting study conducted with piglets found that just one week with inadequate zinc intake decreased pancreatic production of digestive enzymes and impaired digestion.
Br J Nutr. 2016 May 27:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]

July 30, 2016
Hydration and Blood Pressure: Dehydration can lead to overly low blood pressure and impair both brain function and balance. Drinking enough fluid can especially help older people avoid falls due to dizziness or disorientation.
Nutr Rev. 2010 Aug; 68(8): 439–458.

August 13, 2016
Iodine Deficiency and Decreased Salt: According to recent research, levels of the essential nutrient iodine have declined in the American diet over the past two decades. As people decrease their intake of iodized salt, it becomes more important to include seafood in the diet on a regular basis.
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42 (4), pp 1315–1323

September 17, 2016
Magnesium Deficiency and Blood Pressure: Marginal-to-moderate magnesium deficiency may play a role in high blood pressure and conditions associated with inflammatory stress. Boost magnesium in your diet by including green vegetables, beans, and whole grains.
Nutr Rev. 2010 Jun;68(6):333-40.

December 5, 2016
Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis: Low concentrations of vitamin D in newborn infants are associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) later in life. However, some people with normal vitamin D status at birth also developed MS, so it does not appear that vitamin D deficiency at birth causes MS. It may be that other factors associated with low vitamin D status play a role in the causes of MS.
Neurology. 2016 Nov 30. [Epub ahead of print]

March 31, 2017
Vitamin B1 Deficiency in Infants: In 2004, an infant formula mistakenly lacking vitamin B1 (thiamin) was fed to a number of infants. At the time, some infants died from the mistake. Others developed neurological problems that seemed to resolve when vitamin B1 was replenished in their diets. However, a follow-up study of the surviving children at six years of age found that the deficiency in infancy had long-term negative effects on measures of gross and fine motor function and balance skills.
Matern Child Nutr. 2017 Jan 29. [Epub ahead of print]

April 15, 2017
Burns and Vitamin E: A recent study of children who suffered from serious burn injury found that the body's vitamin E levels tended to drop to seriously low levels during the first 4 weeks of recovery. It is not known why this extreme physiological stress on the body affects vitamin E status or if other types of stress have similar effect.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec;92(6):1378-84.

April 20, 2017
Zinc and Heart Health: A new study using piglets as a research model found that relatively short-term zinc deprivation (a few days) triggered a significant increase in oxidative stress in heart muscle. It is not yet clear exactly how this may translate to long term heart health in people. Red meats are among the richest sources of well absorbed zinc.
J Nutr. 2017 Apr;147(4):521-527.

May 16, 2017
Nutrient Deficiency and Animal Behavior: Researchers observed that wild European hamsters living in corn fields were exhibiting strange behaviors, including eating their live young shortly after birth. A laboratory experiment that fed the animals a diet primarily consisting of corn resulted in the same behaviors in the lab setting. It turned out that the abnormal behavior was due to a deficiency of niacin and the animals were suffering from the condition called pellagra in humans.
Proc Biol Sci. 2017 Jan 25;284(1847).

June 20, 2017
Iron Deficiency in Young Children: A study with iron deficient children age 9 to 48 months compared a moderate daily dose of the traditional iron sulfate supplement to the same dose of an iron polysaccharide complex supplement that was expected to be more effective. Both supplements improved iron status, however the iron sulfate supplement was more effective and had less side effects. It was thought that the moderate dose of iron used in the study helped to reduce adverse reactions.
JAMA. 2017;317(22):2297-2304.

August 4, 2017
Environmental CO2 and Protein: Research has shown that crops like rice and wheat grown under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations contain almost eight percent less protein than the same crops grown normally. People who rely heavily on these and similar staple crops for most of their calories will find it increasingly difficult to meet their protein needs.
Environ Health Perspect. August 2017. [Epub ahead of print]

December 26, 2017
Nutrient Deficiencies in Older Adults: A study of over 1000 adults age 65 to 93 found evidence of vitamin D deficiency in about half of the participants and inadequate blood levels of vitamin B12 in almost a third of them.
Nutrients. 2017;9:1276

January 7, 2018
Zinc and Immune System: During the last decade or two of life, calorie needs generally decline, but nutrient needs do not. A study of over 500 nursing home residents found that those with low zinc status (based on blood values) were more likely to develop pneumonia and took longer to recover than those with normal zinc status.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1167-73.

January 21, 2018
Low Iron and Brain Development: Several nutrient deficiencies are known to adversely affect brain and neurological development. Low iron status in teenagers has been shown to impact nerve structure of their brains and persisted into the early adult years.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 3;109(14):E851-9.

February 2, 2018
Nutrition and Hair Loss: Dietary patterns that do not supply all essential nutrients in adequate amounts can cause many changes in body function over time. Thinning of hair and hair loss is a common sign of some nutrient deficiencies like iron and protein, especially in women.
Dermatol Pract Concept. 2017 Jan 31;7(1):1-10.

February 27, 2018
Magnesium and Vitamin D: The activation of vitamin D in the liver and kidneys requires an adequate supply of the essential mineral magnesium. Iron is similarly required for vitamin D activation. Consequently, someone with low vitamin D status should make sure that their intake of magnesium and iron are adequate.
J Amer Osteo Assoc. 2018;118(3):181.

March 31, 2018
Choline - a Little Known Essential Nutrient. Studies show that choline deficiency in developing animals compromises brain function for the life of the animal. The same is likely true for people. Eggs and meat are the richest food sources of choline.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5 Suppl):528S-531S.

June 9, 2018
Nutrient Deficiencies and Dieting: During dieting for weight control, the supply of essential nutrients generally declines. Over time this can lead to marginal or severe nutrient deficiencies that compromise many body functions, including brain function.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jul;52(7):512-8.

June 28, 2018
Vitamin D and Aging: Whether you are a man or a mouse, you will lose muscle tissue in old age. A well-designed study with mice found that consuming insufficient vitamin D over time accelerates the loss of muscle tissue and the decline in physical function.
Aging. 2018 Jun 14. [Epub ahead of print]

July 6, 2018
Folate and B12 Deficiency: A study in Ireland found that about 13 percent of adults over age 50 were deficient in folate and vitamin B12. This is thought to be significantly greater than in the U.S., where folic acid fortification of some foods is mandatory and B12 supplementation is more common.
Br J Nutr. 2018;120(1):111-120.

July 11, 2018
Infant Feeding: According to the most recent release of the ongoing Nestlé Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS), 18% of infants 6-12 months of age fall short on dietary iron. During this stage of life, brain development is known to be impaired by iron deficiency. Many other problems were identified by this recent FITS analysis.
Nestlé Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. 2018.

July 31, 2018
Calcium: Dietary calcium deficiency typically has no obvious symptoms in the short term because the body maintains calcium levels in the blood by mobilizing it from bone. Consequently, over time, chronic deficiency of dietary calcium leads to low bone mass, increasing the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures. Foods that provide significant amounts of well-absorbed calcium include most milk products such as milk, yogurt, and cheese, tofu made with calcium salts, fish with bones like canned sardines, and some green leafy vegetables like mustard greens and turnip greens (but not spinach or beet greens).
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Calcium

August 10, 2018
Pantothenic Acid Deficiency: Deficiency of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is uncommon because most foods contain some of this vitamin. Although rare, a pantothenic acid deficiency can cause a wide variety of symptoms including numbness and burning of the hands and feet to diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Specific foods high in this vitamin include beef liver and sunflower seeds.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Pantothenic-Acid

August 22, 2018
Potassium Deficiency: Prolonged potassium deficiency can result in numerous health conditions including high blood pressure and kidney stones. Bananas and potatoes are both dietary good sources of potassium.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Potassium

August 29, 2018
Vitamin A Deficiency: The top cause of preventable blindness in children worldwide is Vitamin A deficiency. This vitamin deficiency also is a known risk factor for severe measles. In countries with severe vitamin A deficiencies, supplemental vitamin A decreases mortality. Good food sources of vitamin A include liver and foods high in provitamin A (carotenoids) such as leafy green and orange colored vegetables.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Vitamin-A

September 13, 2018
Vitamin B1 Deficiency: Thiamin deficiency can cause loss of appetite, memory issues, tingling in hands and feet, poor reflexes, and impaired muscle function, including heart muscle. Extreme, long term thiamin deficiency results in a condition called beriberi which, in Sinhalese, means "weak, weak" or "I cannot, I cannot," emphasizing the neuromuscular complications of the condition. Pork is an excellent B1 source. Other good B1 sources include: whole and fortified grain products, meats and seafoods, beans, seeds, and nuts.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Thiamin

September 18, 2018
Chromium Deficiency: Although chromium deficiency is considered uncommon, there is evidence that inadequate chromium intake can lead to impaired glucose utilization and elevated blood glucose levels. Although chromium levels can vary greatly in individual foods, some usually good sources include broccoli, grape juice, meat, and some whole grain products.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Chromium

September 26, 2018
Riboflavin Deficiency: Although severe deficiency of vitamin B2 is rare in the United States, inadequate intake, thyroid hormone insufficiency, and some diseases can cause the deficiency condition called ariboflavinosis. Symptoms include skin problems, cracks in the skin at the corners of the mouth, swollen and cracked lips, and hair loss among other problems. If the diet does not include milk, eggs, meat, or enriched grain products, it can be difficult to consume adequate amounts of this vitamin.
Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Information Center - Riboflavin

October 3, 2018
Iron Deficiency: Iron is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world, including the U.S. Besides fatigue and anemia, symptoms of iron deficiency include impaired memory and ability to concentrate, insomnia, increased anxiety and depression, GI problems, and impaired immune function. Iron is especially important to promote normal brain development and learning in early childhood.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Iron

October 7, 2018
Co-existance of obesity and malnutrition: It is increasingly evident that obesity and malnutrition commonly coexist. In fact, it is likely that basic nutrient deficiencies such as protein deficiency can make it more difficult to lose weight when adequate calories from carbohydrate and fat are available.
PLOS Medicine, 2012; 9 (10): e1001320.

October 10, 2018
Niacin Deficiency: Niacin (Vitamin B3) deficiency causes a severe health condition called pellagra. The classic symptoms are the "4 Ds," dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death. Although historically pellagra affected a very large number of people, those currently at risk for the condition include the homeless population, those suffering from anorexia nervosa, and those consuming diets low in animal protein and high in maize not processed with lime. In addition, dialysis patients, cancer patients, those suffering from chronic alcoholism, and people with HIV may be challenged by niacin deficiency.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Niacin

October 24, 2018
Vitamin B6 Deficiency: Severe vitamin B6 deficiency, although uncommon, can seriously affect the nervous system, and cause irritability, depression, confusion, and even seizures. Mouth sores and an inflamed tongue also can occur. Long term inadequate B6 is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Linus Pauling Institute - Micronutrient Information Center - Vitamin-B6

October 31, 2018
Fluoride Deficiency: Dental caries are the only clear symptom of inadequate dietary fluoride. The risk of tooth decay increases for individuals of all ages. Seafood and tea are two foods naturally containing fluoride.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Fluoride

November 14, 2018
Iodine Deficiency: Developmental consequences associated with an iodine deficiency include mental retardation and a condition called cretinism that causes severe physical and mental stunting. Other consequences include hypothyroidism and the development of a goiter. Seafood and iodized salt are the most reliable sources of iodine.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center

November 15, 2018
Zinc and Autism: A new study indicates that zinc deficiency during early brain development can disrupt normal neural development in ways that are associated with the development of autism spectrum disorder. Lean red meat is a good source of well-absorbed zinc. Some shellfish like oysters can be very high in zinc, but also may contain significant amounts of toxic heavy metals, depending on where they were grown.
Front. Mol. Neurosci., 09 November 2018

November 21, 2018
Folate Deficiency: Although severe folate deficiency is relatively rare in the United States, getting too little folate can cause weakness, fatigue, trouble concentrating, irritability, headache, heart palpitations, and shortness of breath. A folate deficiency during pregnancy increases the risk of having low birth-weight babies and neural tube defects.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Folate

November 28, 2018
Magnesium Deficiency: Many Americans consume less than recommended amounts of magnesium. Although in the short run there are no obvious negative effects of consuming insufficient magnesium, ongoing long-term deficiency may adversely affect various aspects of health - especially after middle age. Good food sources of magnesium include brown rice, spinach, almonds, swiss chard, lima beans, and peanuts.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Magnesium

December 5, 2018
Biotin Deficiency: Although severe biotin deficiency is rare, signs of deficiency include hair loss, a scaly red rash around the eyes, nose, mouth, and genital area, and neurological symptoms such as depression, lethargy, hallucinations, numbness and tingling of the extremities. Prolonged consumption of raw egg white causes biotin malabsorption and can lead to deficiency. Foods especially high in biotin include eggs and liver. Two cooked eggs meet daily recommended intake (Adequate Intake).
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Biotin

December 7, 2018
U.S. Low in Choline: Recent studies indicate that approximately 90% of Americans consume well below recommended amounts of the essential nutrient choline. Unfortunately, the food patterns recommended by the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide insufficient amounts of choline to meet the recommended Adequate Intake in most age-gender groups.
Nutrition Today. November 13, 2018. [Epub Ahead of Print]

December 12, 2018
Manganese Deficiency: Although uncommon, manganese deficiency can adversely affect growth, bone development, and management of blood glucose. A diet with modest amounts of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, and nuts easily supplies adequate amounts of manganese.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Manganese

December 13, 2018
Excess Vitamin A and Bone Health: Excess vitamin A has been associated with increased risk of developing osteoporosis with age. A new animal study supports this observation. This is not related to the vitamin A precursor, beta-carotene, found in fruits and vegetables. Rather, this is actual vitamin A as consumed in dietary supplements and fortified foods like breakfast cereals. When heavy use of supplements is combined with the consumption of fortified foods, it is not that hard to get too much vitamin A.
J Endocrinol. 2018 Oct 31;239(3):389-402.

December 17, 2018
Folate Deficiency: A study using human white blood cells found that the effects of folate (folic acid or vitamin B9) deficiency can cause irreversible damage to cellular DNA that gets passed along as cells divide to produce new cells. This is likely why folate deficiency is associated with infertility, mental health disorders, and cancer. Foods rich in folate include green vegetables, most legumes, and fortified grain products.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Dec 3. [Epub ahead of print]

December 19, 2018
Vitamin D Deficiency: Vitamin D deficiency is well known to impair normal bone development in growing children, leading the the condition called rickets. More recently, low vitamin D status has been linked to muscle weakness in older people and increased risk of several health problems ranging from cardiovascular disease to type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - vitamin-D

December 28, 2018
Molybdenum Deficiency: It is generally assumed that most of us get plenty of the essential mineral molybdenum and that deficiencies are only likely under extremely limited dietary conditions. This is probably the case. However, some recent research indicates that molybdenum insufficiency over a long period on time may contribute to the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Front. Neurol., 08 March 2016.

January 9, 2019
Vitamin E Deficiency: Vitamin E deficiency can weaken the immune system as well as cause nerve and muscle damage. As a fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin E is absorbed best when consumed with food sources of fat.
Vitamin E -Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center

January 18, 2019
Sodium Deficiency: Symptoms of sodium deficiency include nausea, dizziness, and muscle cramps. The most common causes include: fluid loss from diarrhea, vomiting, or perspiration.
Sodium (Chloride) Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center

January 24, 2019
Vitamin K Deficiency: A severe deficiency of Vitamin K is generally rare, except for those with intestinal conditions, such as celiac disease or ulcerative colitis. Newborns are generally injected with vitamin K at birth to prevent problems.
Vitamin K - Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center

February 6, 2019
Selenium Deficiency: In North America, selenium deficiency is rare, but when deficient, muscle weakness and wasting occurs, particularly in heart muscle.
Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center - Selenium

February 13, 2019
Zinc Deficiency: Due to zinc's involvement in a great variety of cellular functions, zinc deficiency can cause many different problems. Examples include impaired development in both pregnancy and childhood that can cause problems that persist throughout life, impaired immune function, skin rashes, diarrhea, decreased appetite, loss of sense of taste, vision problems, and lifelong behavioral disturbances. A variety of compounds in plant foods impair zinc absorption. To absorb adequate amounts of zinc, those consuming vegetarian diets need to consume about 50 percent more zinc than omnivores.
Zinc - Linus Pauling Institute » Micronutrient Information Center

March 7, 2019
Vitamin D and Iron: Vitamin D status is assessed by measuring a form of the vitamin that is partially activated (hydroxylated) in the liver by an iron-dependent enzyme system. A new study with women and their children six months to 5 years old found that those with lower iron status were significantly more likely to be vitamin D deficient.
Arch Argent Pediatr. 2018 Dec 1;116(6):e736-e743.

March 17, 2019
Smoking and Increased Vitamin Requirements: Research shows that smokers require greater amounts of vitamin C than non-smokers and a good vitamin D status also is important to reduce the smoking-related cancer risk of smokers.
Clinical Chemistry, April 2013; DOI: 10.1373/clinchem.2012.201939

October 11, 2019
Vitamin K and Mobility: A new study reports that people in their 70s with low vitamin K status are much more likely to have mobility limitations. It is not clear what the mechanism may be. The main dietary source of vitamin K is green vegetables.
J Gerontology. Series A, glz108.

October 28, 2019
Iron Deficiency and Supplementation: For the treatment of iron deficiency with dietary supplements, some research suggests that taking iron supplements every other day may result in better absorption of iron and be a better way to treat iron deficiency than taking iron every day or multiple times a day.
Lancet Haematology. 2017;4(11):E524-E533.

November 24, 2019
Nutrients and Gene Expression: When the body is deficient in an essential vitamin or mineral, it can influence gene expression and cause the level of specific proteins to decrease or increase. Scientists are using this concept to evaluate nutrient status by measuring the blood levels of specific proteins. This promises to provide a much quicker and less expensive way to evaluate vitamin and mineral status.
J Nutr. 2013 Oct;143(10):1540-8.

January 2, 2020
Iodine and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Many things may contribute to chronic fatigue syndrome. Research on 98 people with chronic fatigue syndrome found that they had significantly lower urinary iodine than healthy controls. This indicates a lower absorption of iodine (likely due to low iodine in the diet). Other research indicates that iodine levels in the American diet have declined during the last couple of decades.
Front. Endocrinol., 20 March 2018.

January 7, 2020
Iron Status and Pregnancy: Iron deficiency and its serious health consequences are more common during pregnancy than many people realize. To increase awareness and provide assessment and treatment algorithms for maintaining iron status during pregnancy, researchers developed an educational toolkit for doctors and patients.  Implementation of the toolkit was successful in helping obstetricians detect and treat iron deficiency in pregnancy. The toolkit is available with the journal article.
PLOS Medicine. 2019;16(8):e1002867.

January 22, 2020
Vitamin D Supplementation in Children: Overweight and obese children frequently suffer from high blood pressure and poor glucose tolerance. A new study of 10 to 18 years old overweight and obese children found that supplementation with 1000 to 2000 IU of vitamin D per day for six months significantly lowered blood pressure and improved glucose tolerance. Although the changes were not large, the researchers considered them to be significant.
Am J Clin Nutr. 17 January 2020. [Epub ahead of print]