Research Tips

February 18, 2009
If exercise could be put into a pill, it would be the most frequently prescribed medication in the world. Increasing physical activity can improve both physical and mental fitness.
Br J Sports Med. 2009 Feb;43(2):120-3.


February 24, 2009
There are many ways to stay physically active and increase the calories you burn each day. Even many small movements can add up to plenty of calories. If you have an opportunity to move, take it.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Oct;15(5):409-15.


March 1, 2009
To help prevent exercise from damaging joints, exercise frequently at low-to-moderate intensity and make sure your diet has all of the essential nutrients including adequate vitamin C for cartilage formation and plenty of fluids for lubrication.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2005;45(3):145-64.


March 15, 2009
Feeling anxious or depressed lately? Research indicates that exercise can be an effective antidote for these mental/emotional problems. Make your muscles happy and the brain will follow.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Jan;38(1):173-8.


March 28, 2009
Over 50 years ago, Dr. Jean Mayer demonstrated that sedentary people tend to eat more calories than they need. He found that even modest levels of daily physical activity helped to control appetite and promote a healthy body weight.
Sports Med. 1988 Sep;6(3):135-45.


April 3, 2009
A sedentary lifestyle means you require limited calories. This makes it more challenging to meet your daily essential nutrient needs. Physical activity may be good for your health partly because you can eat more! Go exercise!
Appl Physiol. 2008 Sep;105(3):988-1001.


April 25, 2009
Exercise and nutrition go hand-in-hand to promote good health. As it turns out, three 10-minute walks are just as beneficial to health as one 30-minute walk and are much easier to fit into a busy lifestyle.
Sports Med. 2009;39(1):29-43.


June 7, 2009
Research indicates that it takes longer to get into shape than to get out of shape. Within only 2 to 3 weeks of stopping exercise, changes in fitness can be measured. Maintaining a reduced amount of exercise helps to prevent rapid fat gain that often occurs with abrupt cessation of an exercise program.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov;14(11):1975-84.


June 13, 2009
During exercise, children may be more likely than adults to overheat. Especially when a child is dehydrated at the start of exercise, the risk of overheating is greater. Meeting water needs before and during exercise is essential.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Apr;33(2):420-7.


June 15, 2009
What is the best way for an overweight, sedentary person to become active? Gradually! Fitness is a lifetime commitment, so start slow and build to a steady but sustainable pace.
Cardiol Clin. 2001 Aug;19(3):459-70.


June 27, 2009
The sodium and chloride components of salt are essential nutrients. Due to heavy sweat losses, some endurance athletes can develop dangerously low blood sodium levels. This can lead to nausea, headache, swollen hands and feet, and life-threatening brain swelling.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Oct;18(5):457-72.


August 1, 2009
To support exercise demands, the young or old athlete must first stay hydrated and second, consume adequate amounts of high-carbohydrate foods. Without these two nutrients, an athlete's endurance will suffer.
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2002 Aug;49(4):829-55.


August 16, 2009
When people are short on sleep, they tend to be less inclined to exercise and more inclined to reduce exercise intensity. Getting adequate sleep is an essential component of a fitness program.
Obesity. 2008 Mar;16(3):643-53.


September 13, 2009
Regular exercise several times a week significantly reduces depression in some people. Those who are most unfit seem to get the most benefit, and the more vigorous the exercise, the greater the benefits.
Nord J Psychiatry. 2008;62 Suppl 47:25-9.


October 4, 2009
People training heavily for endurance sports require more salt in their diet than the average person. Exactly how much depends on the hours and intensity of daily training and the amount of salt lost in their sweat.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Oct;18(5):457-72.


October 10, 2009
Staying physically active allows us to consume more food. This makes it easier to meet nutrient needs from food. Calories expended to walk a mile average between 60 and 100 calories, depending on body weight.
Sports Med. 2009;39(1):29-43.


October 27, 2009
It takes longer to get into shape than to get out of shape. Within only 2 to 3 weeks of stopping exercise, changes in fitness can be measured. Even maintaining a lower level exercise helps to prevent rapid fat gain that often occurs with abrupt cessation of an exercise program.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov;14(11):1975-84.


October 31, 2009
The benefits of an active lifestyle are much more important for long-term health than for short-term weight loss. Many health risks associated with excess weight, such as cardiovascular disease, are greatly reduced by regular physical activity.
Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2005;(170):137-63.


November 17, 2009
Iron needs for physically active individuals may be 30% greater than the needs of their less active friends. Consuming food sources of well-absorbed iron is important for overall health. In general, iron is absorbed better from animal foods than from plant foods.
Dietary Reference Intakes - Food & Nutrition Board


November 18, 2009
Intense exercise can actually increase oxidative stress on the body. Therefore, the more active you are, the more important it is to consume fruits and vegetables for their antioxidant benefits.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2001 Oct 1;31(7):911-22.


December 5, 2009
Compression stockings often are prescribed for people to improve poor circulation in their lower legs. Athletes are now using similar stockings to enhance sports performance and recovery from workouts.
J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):101-5.


December 9, 2009
Walking 30 minutes a day or 5,000 to 10,000 steps a day can benefit overall health. Why not ask Santa for a pedometer?
Sports Med. 2009;39(1):29-43.


December 10, 2009
If you are participating in the Honolulu Marathon this Sunday, it is time to rest. Your best preparation includes muscle repair, recovery from training, and carbo-loading.
J Sports Sci. 2007;25 Suppl 1:S29-38.


December 12, 2009
If you are a serious spectator at the Honolulu Marathon this Sunday, the walking, standing, clapping and cheering you do may actually expend about half as many calories as the runners burn to go 26.2 miles.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Dec;36(12):2128-34.


December 27, 2009
Staying fit and maintaining a healthy weight is much easier than getting fit when out of shape. Helping a child to develop a healthy lifestyle is a great lifelong gift.
Ann Med. 1999 Apr;31 Suppl 1:26-32.


January 5, 2010
A lifestyle that includes frequent and consistent physical activity helps protect against colon, breast, prostate and lung cancers.
ACS Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity


January 11, 2010
Adequate hydration is important for good health. Because exercise increases water needs, it is important to start exercise well hydrated and consume appropriate fluids during and after exercise to limit water and salt deficits.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Oct;18(5):457-72.


February 18, 2010
One of the best ways to improve both physical and mental health is to be physically active. If exercise could be put into a pill, it would be the most frequently prescribed medication in the world.
Br J Sports Med. 2009 Feb;43(2):120-3.


February 25, 2010
Consuming foods and beverages that contain protein and carbohydrate within an hour after exercise aids in muscle repair and muscle building.
Curr Sports Med Rep. 2008 Jul-Aug;7(4):193-201.


March 15, 2010
March is “Nutrition Month." But eating well is only half of the formula for good health. Exercise, as you probably guessed, is the other half.
J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2009 Sep-Oct;24(5):344-51.


March 19, 2010
Long, continuous bouts of exercise can trigger asthma attacks in some people. Exercise that involves short, repeated five-minute bouts of exercise with short rests between bouts is less likely to provoke asthma.
Curr Sports Med Rep. 2002 Apr;1(2):86-92.


March 26, 2010
Increased physical activity helps to get the appetite in sync with calorie needs. When people are more sedentary, it is easier to eat more calories than needed. Even modest levels of physical activity can help to control appetite.
Sports Med. 1988 Sep;6(3):135-45.


April 26, 2010
With the emphasis on decreasing obesity in children, it is important to recognize that overweight and obese children have a greater tendency to overheat during exercise. Be sure to supply adequate hydration, especially on hot days.
Sports Med. 1998 Apr;25(4):221-40.


May 1, 2010
The age-associated loss of body protein is called sarcopenia. To increase muscle along with bone density, consume adequate protein and exercise regularly.
Maturitas. 2010 Apr 20.


May 5, 2010
During one hour of exercise in the heat you can lose twice the daily recommended intake of sodium in sweat loss. Remember, sodium is an essential nutrient.
Current Sports Medicine Reports. 7(4):S1-S2, July/August 2008.


May 7, 2010
During hot weather and exercise, our thirst alarm system may function too slowly. Therefore, it is important to drink before you get thirsty under those conditions.
Br J Sports Med. 1997 Sep;31(3):175-82.


May 16, 2010
Motivating children to exercise can sometimes seem like a formidable task. But, make it fun and part the daily lifestyle and it can yield lifelong health rewards.
J Pediatr Health Care. 2003 Jan-Feb;17(1):11-7.


June 5, 2010
As the weather gets hotter, remember that children are more likely than adults to overheat during exercise. This is especially true for overweight children. Keep plenty of fluids available and encourage drinking.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Apr;33(2):420-7.


June 7, 2010
The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity for children and teenagers. This activity can be spread throughout the day. Even 10-minute bouts of activity can contribute to the recommended daily total.
2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans


June 8, 2010
Exercise causes the body to lose water and salt in sweat. Typical salt loss during exercise is about a half a teaspoon per hour. Some people lose twice this much. Athletes may crave salt because their needs are much greater than the average person.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Oct;18(5):457-72.


July 31, 2010
During endurance exercises like jogging, the first nutrient that runs low is water and the second is carbohydrate. For good endurance, stay hydrated during exercise and consume a balanced diet that includes high carbohydrate foods.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Mar;41(3):709-31.


August 1, 2010
Getting regular exercise is beneficial to long-term health. Recent research indicates that even if you exercise regularly, spending less time sitting provides additional health benefits.
Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jul 22. [Epub ahead of print]


August 15, 2010
If you are starting up a new exercise program, remember that joints take longer than muscles to adapt to the stresses of exercise. So, gear up gradually to avoid damaging your joints.
Br Med Bull. 1992 Jul;48(3):668-82.


August 22, 2010
With summer coming to an end, it is important to stay physically active. This helps to maintain or achieve a healthy weight and decreases risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005 Jun;68 Suppl1:S73-81.


September 1, 2010
Although exercise is less likely to promote fat loss in women than in men, exercise does benefit health in both genders and allows both men and women to eat more calories without gaining weight.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Feb;296(2):R233-42.


September 10, 2010
Both human and animal studies have shown that abruptly stopping an exercise habit results in rapid gain in body fat. Staying active at a reduced level, however, does not seem to have much effect on body fat.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov;14(11):1975-84.


September 29, 2010
Modern sedentary lifestyles may be the major cause of many common health problems. Find fun physical activities to increase your calorie needs. Being able to eat more food to meet higher calorie needs also increases the intake of essential nutrients and other beneficial food components.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2006 Jul 19;3:17.


October 10, 2010
Research indicates that three 10-minute walks may be just as beneficial to health as one 30-minute walk. If your are just getting back into exercise, you can start with one10-minute walk and build up to three a day.
Sports Med. 2009;39(1):29-43.


November 9, 2010
Daily exercise provides clear health benefits, but high intensity and very long duration exercise can create oxidative stress in the body. To facilitate the body's adaptation to this oxidative stress, consume recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables for their antioxidant benefits.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2001 Oct 1;31(7):911-22.


November 16, 2010
The calories used to walk a mile depend mostly on a person's body weight. However, for two people weighing the same, the shorter person will typically use slightly more calories – about one extra calorie (kcal) per mile for each inch difference in height.
J Exp Biol. 2010;213:3972-3979.


December 9, 2010
Compression stockings are commonly used to treat health problems related to poor circulation in the lower legs. Endurance athletes use similar stockings and there is evidence that their use can enhance certain types of sports performance and promote recovery from workouts.
J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):101-5.


December 11, 2010
Children and teenagers who participate in organized sports frequently do not get enough physical activity to meet national recommendations for at least 60 minutes a day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Parents should strive to provide additional opportunities for their children to be physically active.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010 Dec 6. [Epub ahead of print]


December 19, 2010
Strength training is especially beneficial for people over 65 years of age. Besides strengthening the muscles, strength training appears to benefit the brain as well and requires just once a week on an ongoing basis.
Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(22):2036-2038.


December 23, 2010
Are you anticipating several hours of shopping at the mall? Although the mall-a-thon may not be quite like a marathon, it is still important to maintain hydration and electrolyte status to successfully complete the event.
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Oct;20 Suppl 3:40-7.


December 26, 2010
The enjoyment of exercise is associated with the ease of the exercise. Adequate hydration has been shown to decrease muscle fatigue allowing you to get better workouts.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Oct;33(10):1694-700


January 1, 2011
A recent review of 52 research studies indicates that physical activity is associated with a 25% reduction in colon cancer risk, as well as a reduced risk of cancer recurrence and death following a cancer diagnosis.
Recent Results Cancer Res. 2011;186:73-100


January 13, 2011
To maintain health, the adult "Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans" suggest aiming for 300 minutes per week of moderate exercise or 150 minutes per week of vigorous intensity exercise.
Am J Prev Med. 2010 Oct;39(4):305-13.


January 16, 2011
Recent research shows that simply taking more steps every day not only helps ward off obesity but also reduces the risk of diabetes. Incorporating 10,000 steps a day into their daily routine was shown to be beneficial for improving body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and insulin sensitivity.
BMJ. 2011 Jan 13;342:c7249.


January 24, 2011
Having an "exercise buddy" can make regular physical activity more enjoyable. New research shows that this is the case for children. Helping kids connect with other physically active kids is likely to be a major factor for staying fit and maintaining a healthy body weight.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Feb;43(2):259-65.


January 31, 2011
When was the last time you had chocolate milk and felt good about it? Research on chocolate milk as an exercise recovery drink indicates that it has a good balance of carbohydrate and protein to enhance recovery and muscle repair after a workout.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010; 7: 19.


February 1, 2011
Feel like a strong mug of coffee after that long run? It may not be a bad idea. A double-blind study with endurance athletes found that when caffeine was consumed with carbohydrate after exhaustive exercise, the caffeine boosted carbohydrate storage (glycogen) in muscles by 66%.
J Appl Physiol. 2008 Jul;105(1):7-13.


March 6, 2011
Exercise is an important part of staying healthy. So whether you are looking for a new house location or needing a place of solace, remember community parks and playgrounds have been shown to provide opportunities for both escape and physical activity.
Disasters. 2011 Apr;35(2):383-403.


March 18, 2011
Exercise programs have been found to be good treatment for some types of depression. A recent study on older people with depression found that even a gentle exercise like tai chi significantly improves the success of standard therapy for depression.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011 Mar 6. [Epub ahead of print]


March 26, 2011
Weight training is not typically recommended during pregnancy, however, a new study has now found that low to moderate intensity strength exercise was well tolerated by 32 pregnant women. The women performed strength exercise twice a week for 12 weeks and experienced an increase in strength with no change in blood pressure.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Volume 8, Issue 3, p309-320.


April 5, 2011
The benefits of regular physical activity are often impressive. Now, there is growing evidence that a habit of frequent vigorous exercise may prevent the shortening of telomeres (the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes). Shortened telomere length is a sign of cell aging and declining health.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(5): e10837. Published online 2010 May 26


April 14, 2011
Beetroot juice has been shown to enhance various aspects of exercise performance, such as enabling a person to work out longer. This is due to the naturally high levels of nitrate. Borscht anyone?
J Appl Physiol. 2011 Mar;110(3):591-600.


May 5, 2011
It is well known that staying fit with regular exercise can reduce the risk of having a heart attack and, in addition, can decrease damage to the heart should a heart attack occur. Recent studies with animals indicate that daily exercise increases the body's capacity to produce nitric oxide, a short-lasting molecule that stimulates blood vessels to dilate and allow more blood to flow to the heart and other parts of the body.
Circ Res. 2011 Apr 28. [Epub ahead of print]


May 19, 2011
How fast can you jog a mile? Research indicates that after middle age, common tests of fitness level can be as good as most other risk factors at predicting the risk of a heart attack or stroke.
Circulation. 2011 Apr 5;123(13):1377-83. Epub 2011 Mar 21.


June 26, 2011
Some research has reported that stretching before exercise can impair performance. A recent review of this topic concluded that if the duration of static stretching of a muscle group is less than 60 seconds, subsequent performance is not affected by stretching.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Jun 8. [Epub ahead of print]


July 29, 2011
Muscle cells are insulin sensitive and can take up, utilize, and store glucose. Consequently, it makes sense that having more muscle mass as well as using muscles can improve the body's ability to handle blood sugar.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul 21. [Epub ahead of print]


August 3, 2011
Dosage generally applies to drugs or supplements, but it is time to think of exercise in a similar way. Ongoing research finding suggest that a dose of just 30 min a day on five days a week can significantly reduce heart disease risk.
Circulation. August 1, 2011 [Epub ahead of print]


August 5, 2011
Do you need to lift heavy weights to build muscle? New research says no. The study found that lifting lighter weights for enough repetitions to reach your limit is effective at building muscle mass.
PLoS ONE, 2010; 5 (8): e12033.


August 22, 2011
Several studies have found that consuming a protein-containing food or beverage shortly after strength training helps support muscle protein synthesis. A recent study supported this and found that 25 grams of whey protein consumed all at once following exercise was better than consuming it gradually over a 3-hour post-exercise period.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 27. [Epub ahead of print]


August 30, 2011
Pregnant women who exercise at least 30 minutes three times a week had fetuses with lower heart rates during the final weeks of development. This sign of heart health persists in the infant during its first month of life and possibly longer.
FASEB J. April 2010 24 (Meeting Abstract Supplement) 629.7


September 3, 2011
The "post-exercise calorie burn" appears to be most significant after vigorous exercise. In a new study, men who exercised for 45 minutes at a relatively high intensity expended an additional 190 calories on average during the 14 hours following the exercise.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: Sept 2011, V43 Issue 9 - pp 1643-1648


September 6, 2011
When athletes drink too much fluid during endurance events, it increases their risk of developing low blood sodium levels (hyponatremia) that can become life threatening. According to a recent survey, many endurance athletes may be drinking excessive amounts of fluid during events.
Br J Sports Med. 2011 Jun;45(8):646-9. Epub 2010 Sep 28.


September 24, 2011
If the recommendation to exercise at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the week is too much for you, you can take heart in the results of a very large study conducted in Taiwan. Following over 400,000 people over a 22 year period, researchers found that just 15 minutes a day on most days (90 minutes per week) was enough exercise to extend the lifespan by about 3 years.
Lancet. 2011 Aug 14. [Epub ahead of print]


October 22, 2011
Fibromyalgia is syndrome characterized by chronic pain and fatigue along with multiple related symptoms. A recent small study with 22 women found that participating in yoga two days a week for 8 weeks reduced pain and even helped to normalize cortisol levels.
J Pain Res. 2011;4:189-201.


October 24, 2011
Research continues to support physical activity as a key factor in staying healthy as the years add up. Interspersing high intensity with moderate intensity exercise is proving to be especially important for keeping fit and reducing chronic disease risk.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Aug;43(8):1465-73.


October 27, 2011
Dehydration is clearly a risk during a long athletic event like a marathon. However, consumption of excess fluids during a marathon is risky as well. Over-hydration can lead to dangerous cellular swelling that even affects brain function.
Br J Sports Med 2011;45:646-649.


November 3, 2011
Feeling down and depressed? Take a dose of exercise. Research is finding that depression tends to reduce the desire for exercise and that staying physically active is associated with a decreased risk of depression.
Health Psychol. 2011 Jul;30(4):453-62.


December 18, 2011
A small study with eight type 2 diabetic participants found that daily brief, high intensity exercise (ten 1-minute bouts of exercise with one minute of rest between each bout) greatly improved blood glucose control within two weeks.
Brief, Intense Exercise Lowers Blood Sugar, Small Study Finds


December 20, 2011
During the early adult years, it is common for physical activity to decline greatly compared to the adolescent years. This period may represent one of the most important stages of life to find ways to stay active.
Am J Prev Med. 2012; 42 (1):14-20.


January 10, 2012
If you walk for exercise and have increased your walking speed over time, it may be time to include some jogging in your exercise mix. As walking speed increases to over 4 miles per hour, it starts to become more biomechanically comfortable to jog.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jan 4. [Epub ahead of print]


January 13, 2012
With aging, there is a strong tendency to become more sedentary. However, the later years of life may be the most important time to have a daily exercise program. Relatively simple exercises can provide the strength and flexibility needed for basic daily life activities such as walking, getting up from a chair, and dressing.
N Engl J Med. 2002 Oct 3;347(14):1068-74.


January 24, 2012
For young athletes, the combined energy needs for their workouts and growth can add up to a substantial need for calories. Good performance and normal development require adequate calorie intake.
Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2011 May;23(2):261-9.


February 8, 2012
Burn calories, not electricity. Take the stairs. Researchers found that signs with messages like this placed strategically in buildings could increase use of the stairs by over 30 percent.
Am J Prev Med. 2012 Feb;42(2):136-41.


February 20, 2012
Researchers are identifying specific genetic variants as predictors of how specific types of exercise programs may benefit some individuals. However, coming up with an exercise prescription based on genetics should also consider things like an individual's environment, social and cultural background, beliefs, psychology, personal interests, etc.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Feb 9. [Epub ahead of print]


March 7, 2012
Exercise triggers beneficial changes in muscles through altered gene expression. A recent study presented evidence that caffeine can stimulate similar changes in factors that control muscle cell gene expression. But, don't forgo the exercise for a cup of Joe. There is no evidence that the effects of exercise and caffeine are identical.
Cell Metabolism, 2012;3:405-411.


April 16, 2012
More is not always better when it comes to athletic training. The best training programs balance the stress of exercise with adequate rest time for recovery from the workout stress. The body cannot adapt and strengthen without proper recovery.
Journal of Athletic Training, Vol. 47, Number 2, March/April 2012 , pp. 198-204(7)


May 6, 2012
For some time, research has indicated that consistent physical activity provides long term health benefits. A new report emphasizes that the benefits may be somewhat like alcohol consumption. Mortality is higher in non-joggers and in those undertaking extreme levels of exercise than it is in moderate joggers.
Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Feb;27(2):91-9.


May 20, 2012
It is well known that there are critical windows for meeting nutrient needs during various stages of brain development. Research is now identifying developmental windows during which adequate levels of physical activity appear to be important for optimal brain development.
Neuroscience. 2012 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]


May 26, 2012
New research supports the evolving concept that obesity is not a significant risk factor for heart disease unless the obese individual also has metabolic health problems indicated by abnormal blood pressure, blood sugar, HDL cholesterol, and C-reactive protein, a measure of inflammation in the body. Regular physical activity can help to prevent these metabolic health problems.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]


May 30, 2012
If you are tired of consuming sugar-based sports drinks during your workouts, go bananas. A new study found that consuming bananas along with water during a 2.5 to 3 hour session of cycling provided the same performance benefit as consuming a sports drink that provided the same amount of carbohydrate.
PLoS ONE 7(5): e37479. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037479


May 31, 2012
For children age five to twelve, exercise is contagious. A novel study found that children who developed friendships with more active children are very likely to increase their own physical activity.
Pediatrics 2012; 129: 1064–1071.


July 21, 2012
A new study of over 400,000 people indicates that an inactive lifestyle is as bad for health as smoking. Even 15 minutes a day of exercise was enough to show a significant reduction in the mortality risk compared to being totally inactive.
The Lancet, Volume 378, Issue 9798, Pages 1244 - 1253, 1 October 2011


August 11, 2012
If you don't like going to the gym to stay fit, another alternative may be even better for older people. When an exercise program incorporated strength and balance training into common activities of daily living, seniors maintained their functional capacity and avoided falls better than they did with a more traditional home-based training technique.
BMJ 2012;345:e4547


September 10, 2012
An obvious effect of running a marathon is sore legs. Although we can't feel the soreness, the heart muscle also experiences temporary damage, based on blood markers, after a marathon. Fortunately, both the leg muscles and heart are back to normal one week following the marathon, even for men over age 50.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2012 Aug 20;14(1):58.


September 13, 2012
Great athletes have the motivation to push through pain to obtain victory. However, even the greatest athletes must respect their need for nutrients. When a nutrient runs low, victory is impossible.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Aug;44(8):1552-9.


September 17, 2012
People who exercise regularly know that a bout of exercise has a stress releasing effect on the body and mind. New research supports this and indicates that exercise can help to deal with anxiety as well.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Aug 14. [Epub ahead of print]


September 20, 2012
Regular physical activity generally helps to maintain a healthy body weight, but it is not clear exactly how this works. One idea is that exercise helps to normalize the appetite. A new study provides some support for this concept, finding that a 45 minute bout of moderate to vigorous exercise actually reduced the motivation to consume food.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 May 22. [Epub ahead of print]


September 21, 2012
If you are overweight, the usual message is to lose weight. However, the message more likely should be to get fit. Researchers often find that thinness and health are not one and the same.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Aug 23. [Epub ahead of print]


September 29, 2012
More physical activity and less time spent sitting are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease. Too much sitting time is most risky for women and low physical activity is more risky for men.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 Oct;60(4):583-90.


October 2, 2012
A systematic review of 30 randomized controlled trials on the effect of exercise intervention programs with children found that the programs had little effect on total daily physical activity and any increase in activity did not persist when programs ceased. Growing up in a physically active family setting is likely more effective than intervention programs for promoting an active lifestyle.
BMJ 2012;345:e5888.


October 16, 2012
A study with overweight people with type 2 diabetes indicated that an exercise program helps the fat cells send out more of a hormone that tells the liver to produce more of the protective HDL cholesterol. This occurred even without weight loss.
The Journal of Lipid Research, 2012. [Epub ahead of print]


October 29, 2012
Exercise is good for you, both physically and mentally, but like everything else, there are upper limits. Both low and excessive levels of physical activity are associated with poorer mental health. A recent study found that the optimal range of physical activity for mental health was 2.5 to 7.5 hours per week.
Prev Med. 2012 Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print]


November 10, 2012
In case you were not convinced that physical activity is good for you, pooled data from six studies (on over 600,000 people) indicated that staying physically active after the age of 40 is associated with living an additional two to seven years.
PLoS Med 9(11): e1001335.


November 12, 2012
New Canadian research indicates that daily vigorous physical activity is important for children to maintain fitness and a healthy body weight. Vigorous activity was equivalent to an exercise intensity comparable to jogging or greater intensity.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Sep 10:1-8. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2012. 1028. [Epub ahead of print]


December 15, 2012
Research indicates that Olympic athletes live longer than the average person. However, few people in the general population meet the basic recommendation to obtain 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per week. If you are one of the few getting the 150 minutes of activity, your longevity is likely to match that of Olympians. Give yourself a gold medal!
BMJ 2012;345:e8338


February 4, 2013
It is no big news that most of us need to sit less and exercise more. New research shows that physical activity affects the expression of specific genes in muscle tissue that benefits blood flow throughout the body and reduces cardiovascular disease risk.
Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Oct 12;11:137.


February 5, 2013
If you have limited time for exercise, consider cranking up the intensity of your activities during the time you have available. A study of sedentary adult males found that three sessions of sprint interval training on a stationary bike for about 30 minutes, 3 times a week, was as effective as five sessions of traditional endurance exercise, taking five hours per week, at increasing whole body insulin sensitivity and improving various indices of cardiovascular function.
J Physiol. 2012 Sep 3. [Epub ahead of print]


February 11, 2013
Generally, when we talk about the "fuel tank" for exercise the focus is on having adequate carbohydrate stored as muscle glycogen. In addition, It is important to maintain a normal amount of antioxidant protection by eating the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables.
Diabetes Care. 2013 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]


March 20, 2013
More and more we are learning about how exercise can benefit the body, including the brain. Research on volleyball players found that they have quicker mental functions even outside of the sport and are are able to pick up information and switch between tasks more quickly than nonathletes.
Front Psychol. 2013;4:36.


June 14, 2013
Exercise is one of the best preventive measures for type 2 diabetes. A recent study even found that a 45 minute leisurely walk significantly lowered blood glucose measured three hours after a meal. Even more effective was splitting the 45 minutes of walking up into three 15-minute walks taken after each meal.
Diabetes Care June 11, 2013


July 1, 2013
The statin drug simvastatin (Zocor) was found to impair cardiorespiratory and skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise training in previously sedentary, overweight or obese patients at risk for metabolic syndrome. This may lead to research that will help explain the negative effects on muscle function experienced by some statin users.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Apr 10. [Epub ahead of print]


July 2, 2013
Exercise research is exploring ways to fit exercise into a busy lifestyle. Evidence is growing that high intensity, short duration exercise provides many of the same benefits as lower intensity longer duration exercises.
Sports Med. 2012 Jun 1;42(6):489-509.


July 20, 2013
Research on the effects of exercise on the body is starting to identify some key biochemical changes that take place in response to training. This raises the possibility that there may be ways to provide immobilized people with at least some of the benefits of exercise. It is unlikely, however, that we will ever have a true "exercise pill" that provides all the benefits of physical activity.
Nature Medicine. 14 July 2013. [Epub ahead of print]


August 31, 2013
Studies on young to middle age adults have found that greater frequency, intensity and duration of exercise provides greater health benefit. However, recent studies of women over age 60 indicate that even just one workout a week provides similar benefits as two or three times a week.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Jan 30. [Epub ahead of print]


September 8, 2013
A condition called exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (previously called exercise-induced asthma) is a narrowing of the bronchial airways to the lungs that occurs in 10 to 50 percent of athletes, depending on the sport and environmental conditions. A review of three studies concludes that taking 500 to 2000 mg of vitamin C before exercise significantly reduces broncho-constriction and symptoms in those who suffer from this condition.
BMJ Open. 2013 Jun 20;3(6).


October 3, 2013
A large review of over 300 randomized controlled trials that involved more than 300,000 participants with cardiovascular disease found that exercise treatments were generally as effective as drug treatments for reducing mortality. For stroke patients, exercise was significantly more effective than drugs.
BMJ 2013;347:f5577.


November 25, 2013
Endurance athletes, especially females, are at increased risk for developing iron deficiency. A new study does not support the theory that inflammation from exercise increases the hormone hepcidin (which reduces iron absorption). Therefore, the most likely contributors to iron deficiency in endurance athletes are small but significant iron losses in sweat and inadequate dietary bioavailable iron.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2013 Oct;23(5):513-21.


November 28, 2013
A new study found that 45 minutes of daily exercise at a moderate intensity can prevent many of the negative metabolic changes that typically take place during periods of overeating - a well-timed study for the holiday season.
J Physiol. 2013 Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print]


November 30, 2013
Gradual loss of lean muscle mass is a common observation In middle-aged and older men. Both adequate dietary protein and strength training (resistance) exercise help to maintain or build muscle mass. A recent study with 35 men around the age of 59 years found that consuming 6 ounces of moderately lean ground beef (providing 36 grams of protein) at a meal substantially increased muscle protein synthesis, especially when it followed a strength training workout. Other high quality protein sources would likely have the same effect.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013 Feb;38(2):120-5.


December 25, 2013
Quote from Santa: "Although I am big, I'm fit and healthy. Thanks to my daily exercise and Mrs. Claus's great cooking, I have high HDL levels, low triglycerides, and my blood glucose is perfect. After all, I train year-round for my annual Christmas Eve marathon."
BMJ 2009;339:b5261.


January 8, 2014
Research shows that HDL, also known as "good cholesterol" is more beneficial for males that exercise regularly, regardless of weight, than it is for men who were sedentary. The exercise used in this research was strength training.
J Appl Physiol. 2013 Oct 1;115(7):1043-9.


January 17, 2014
A new study on 93,000 postmenopausal woman found that greater sedentary time was linked to earlier mortality.
Am J Prev Med 2014;46(2):122–135


January 25, 2014
Large scale studies have found that blood pressure, on average, tends to be highest during the winter and also is higher in people who live farther from the equator. A new study indicates that sun exposure to the skin increases the production of nitric oxide which dilates blood vessels and lowers blood pressure.
J Invest Derm. 2014, 20 January. [Epub ahead of print]


February 24, 2014
Exercise is known to produce oxidative stress, especially in active muscle tissues. The research on using anti-oxidant supplements to decrease this stress has produced mixed results. It seems likely that athletes with adequate anti-oxidant nutrient status will not benefit from supplementation, but those with poor status may benefit.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Feb 19;11(1):4.


April 13, 2014
A systematic review and meta-analysis of 24 studies concluded that iron supplementation significantly improves maximal and submaximal exercise performance of physically active women of reproductive age. Most of the studies reviewed were conducted with non-anemic women who had low iron stores (low serum ferritin).
J Nutr. 2014 Apr 9. [Epub ahead of print]


May 30, 2014
It is known that the iron needs are increased by athletic training. This is especially a concern in female athletes. A systematic review of research on iron supplementation of female athletes found substantial evidence for iron supplementation improving performance. They concluded that both preventing and treating iron deficiency is important for female athletes.
J Nutr. 2014 Jun;144(6):906-14.


June 11, 2014
It seems like exercise is good for just about everything. A new study found that regular exercise is associated with more diversity of the intestinal bacteria population. This is considered to be a good thing. It is not known why this occurs, but the greater food consumption of active people may play a role.
Gut. June 2014 [Epub Ahead of Print]


July 30, 2014
Exercise and Diabetes: Daily exercise is one of the best components of lifestyle change to manage type 2 diabetes. A new review of the research literature indicates that both aerobic exercise and strength training are beneficial. Including both forms of exercise in one's exercise program appears to be the most beneficial approach.
Diabetologia. 2014 Jul 5. [Epub ahead of print]


September 27, 2014
Exercise and Dental Health: There is some evidence that extensive exercise training is associated with an increased risk of tooth enamel erosion and dental caries. It is not clear what may cause this, but it might be related to reduced saliva flow during exercise. It may be helpful for both dental health and hydration to drink frequently during exercise. When possible, follow up sports drinks with water to rinse sugars from the mouth.
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014 Jun 11. [Epub ahead of print]


September 29, 2014
Soy vs Whey Protein: Two weeks of supplementation with soy protein or whey protein did not affect estrogen levels in men involved in strength training. However, testosterone levels were a bit lower following the soy protein supplementation period.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2013;32(1):66-74.


October 11, 2014
Age and Muscle Loss: After age 50, there is a steady decline in the ability to maintain muscle mass. The combination of strength exercise and adequate protein intake can help to minimize this age-related muscle loss. This also helps to keep the body's calorie needs higher, allowing greater food intake without excessive weight gain.
Age Ageing. 2014 Sep 21. [Epub ahead of print]


January 8, 2015
Rehydration After Exercise: When water is consumed after exercise to replace the water lost during exercise, much of that water can be lost in the urine. A new study found that water provided post-exercise in the form of milk and milk drinks was retained by the body better than water consumed in a common sports beverage. Protein, carbohydrate, and electrolytes all help the body retain water. These are all present in milk-based beverages.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Dec;39(12):1366-72.


February 4, 2015
Exercise and Mortality: A prospective 12-year study of 1,098 healthy joggers between 20 and 86 years of age found that the lowest mortality was among light joggers (based on pace, quantity, and frequency of jogging). Moderate joggers had a significantly higher mortality rate than the light joggers, but lower than that of sedentary nonjoggers. Surprisingly, the strenuous joggers had a mortality rate that was the same as that of sedentary nonjoggers.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65(5):411-419.


March 27, 2015
Fitness and Cancer: Researchers conducted treadmill fitness tests on more than 13,000 men during middle age (49 years old on average). When they followed up on the men after age 65, those who had the highest fitness levels at midlife were significantly less likely to develop lung or colorectal cancer. Once the participants turned 65, the researchers looked at Medicare records for diagnoses of lung, prostate and colorectal cancer, and used the National Death Index to find data on deaths from cancer or cardiovascular disease.
JAMA Oncol. Published online March 26, 2015.


April 1, 2015
Exercise in Medicine: Although the prestigious American College of Sports Medicine states that, "Exercise is Medicine," a review of medical school curricula found that most medical school programs do not offer any courses on physical activity, and if they do, they are rarely required. This is unfortunate. For some conditions like type 2 diabetes, exercise can be the best "medicine" for a patient.
J Phys Act Health. 2014 Dec 2. [Epub ahead of print]


April 25, 2015
Exercise and nutrition go hand-in-hand to promote good health. As it turns out, three 10-minute walks are just as beneficial to health as one 30-minute walk and are much easier to fit into a busy lifestyle.
Sports Med. 2009;39(1):29-43.


June 2, 2015
Exercise Upper Limits: A recent study indicated that the most favorable running dose for reducing mortality was 1 to 2.4 hours of jogging per week including no more than 3 running days per week at a slow to moderate pace. A related study suggested that 30 miles of running or 46 miles of walking per week is approximately the safe upper limit for optimizing long-term cardiovascular health and life expectancy. Both studies acknowledge that much more research is needed to verify their conclusions. The important message here is that some exercise is much better than none.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Feb 10;65(5):411-9.


August 1, 2015
Nutrients essential for endurance exercise: To support exercise demands, the young or old athlete must first stay hydrated and second, consume adequate amounts of high-carbohydrate foods. Without these two nutrients, an athlete's endurance will suffer.
Pediatr Clin North Am. 2002 Aug;49(4):829-55.


September 7, 2015
Promoting Exercise for Teens: A study of middle school age students found that encouraging them to exercise is likely to be ineffective. Rather, providing exercise opportunities that are perceived by the students as something they choose to do is more likely to lead to developing a habit of regular physical activity.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Sep;47(9):1913-21.


October 1, 2015
Exercise Associated Water Intoxication: Drinking excessive water during long endurance exercise, especially when salt is being lost in sweat, can result in a dangerous over-dilution of body fluids. The medical name for the condition is hyponatremia, meaning low blood sodium level. Without prompt and proper treatment, hyponatremia can cause brain damage and even death.
Wilderness Environ Med. 2015 Sep;26(3):371-4.


October 12, 2015
Heart Attack and Depression: Following survival of a heart attack, people are almost three times as likely to sufferer from depression. Both quitting smoking and increasing physical activity help to reduce the risk of post-heart attack depression.
Cleve Clin J Med. 2011 Aug;78 Suppl 1:S35-43.


October 31, 2015
Diabetes and Exercise: Individuals at risk for diabetes should consider adding strength training to their exercise program. Research indicates that strength-building exercise improves the ability to clear sugar from the blood and helps to build muscle and decrease body fat.
Diabetes Care. 2003 Nov;26(11):2977-82.


November 1, 2015
Active Lifwstyle for Health: The benefits of an active lifestyle are much more important for long-term health than for short-term weight loss. Many health risks associated with excess weight, such as cardiovascular disease, are greatly reduced by regular physical activity.
Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2005;(170):137-63.


December 5, 2015
Circulation and Exercise: Compression stockings often are prescribed for people to improve poor circulation in their lower legs. Athletes are now using similar stockings to enhance sports performance and recovery from workouts.
J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):101-5.


December 12, 2015
Walking and Health: Simply walking 30 minutes a day or 5,000 to 10,000 steps a day can benefit overall health. Why not ask Santa for a pedometer?
Sports Med. 2009;39(1):29-43.


December 25, 2015
Santa's Fitness: Santa is a big man, but he is not overly fat. His very active job keeps him more fit than fat.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Nov;109(11):1854-61.


December 31, 2015
Exercise and Gut Bacteria: Add exercise to the list of factors that affect the composition of the microbe population in the lower intestine. Physical activity early in life appears to be especially influential on developing a healthful balance of bacterial species that can affect life-long health.
Immunol Cell Biol. 2015 Dec 9. [Epub ahead of print]


January 9, 2016
Exercise and Cancer Prevention: A lifestyle that includes frequent and consistent physical activity helps protect against colon, breast, prostate and lung cancers.
ACS Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity


January 22, 2016
High Intensity Exercise: All forms of exercise seem to benefit health in a variety of ways and we all tend to gravitate to the types of exercise that fit our capabilities and lifestyles. For those who want to do higher intensity exercise and spend less time exercising, there is rapidly increasing evidence that high intensity interval training (HIIT) provides substantial bene?ts to cardiometabolic health with less time commitment than needed for many lower intensity exercise routines.
Obesity Reviews, 2015;16(11):942-961.


January 25, 2016
Boosting Physical Activity: It is evolutionary-based behavior to conserve energy when possible. Thus, we are inherently lazy. Researchers suggest using drugs like caffeine to reduce the perception of effort during exercise may help to increase physical activity.
Sports Med. 2016;46(1):1-5.


March 21, 2016
Diet, Exercise and Aging: If you are eating well or not so well, research shows that exercise still is likely to benefit health and longevity.
Diabetes. 2016 Mar 16. [Epub ahead of print]


April 7, 2016
Food Label and Exercise: In addition to providing the calorie content per serving of a food on its food label, it has been proposed that people would understand calories better if an activity equivalent for the amount of calories also was provided on the label. For something like miles of walking, it would be necessary to determine the best body weight to use. To walk a mile, a person weighing 120 pounds expends about 70 calories whereas a 200 pound person expends about 105 calories.
BMJ 2016;353:i1856.


April 8, 2016
Sitting Time and Mortality: An analysis of data from 54 countries found that increased sitting time could shorten your life. However, if your job requires a lot of sitting, don't stress too much. Statistically speaking, they found that limiting sitting time to less than three hours a day could, on average, increase a person's life expectancy by 0.2 years, a bit more than two months.
Am J Prev Med. 2016 Mar 23. [Epub ahead of print]


April 24, 2016
Safe Exercise for Children: With the emphasis on decreasing obesity in children, it is important to recognize that overweight and obese children have a greater tendency to overheat during exercise. Be sure to supply adequate hydration, especially on hot days.
Sports Med. 1998 Apr;25(4):221-40.


April 25, 2016
Chocolate and Athletic Performance: A small study with 9 participants found that consuming 40 grams of dark chocolate daily for two weeks improved some measures of athletic performance compared to when they consumed white chocolate or no chocolate. More research is needed to confirm the potential effects of components in dark chocolate.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Dec 15;12:47.


May 7, 2016
Exercise and Sodium: During one hour of exercise in the heat you can lose twice the daily recommended intake of sodium in sweat loss. Remember, sodium is an essential nutrient.
Current Sports Medicine Reports. 7(4):S1-S2, July/August 2008.


May 11, 2016
Brief Exercise and Diabetes: A study on 24 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes showed that light walking for 3 minutes every 30 minutes during an otherwise sedentary 8-hour work day significantly improved measures of blood glucose control throughout the day.
Diabetes Care. 2016 April 13. [Epub ahead of print]


May 15, 2016
Family Exercise: Motivating children to exercise can sometimes seem like a formidable task. But, make it fun and part the daily lifestyle and it can yield lifelong health rewards.
J Pediatr Health Care. 2003 Jan-Feb;17(1):11-7.


May 27, 2016
Best Exercise Dose: Some studies indicate that excessive daily exercise may be as risky for cardiovascular health as being sedentary. Exercising moderately a few times a week seems to provide the most health benefit. More research is likely needed to clarify this better, but for now, moderate level exercise appears to be the optimal dose.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Jan 26;67(3):316-29. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.11.034.


June 4, 2016
Exercise and Hydration: Exercise causes the body to lose water and salt in sweat. Typical salt loss during exercise is about a half a teaspoon per hour. Some people lose twice this much. Athletes may crave salt because their needs are much greater than the average person.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Oct;18(5):457-72.


June 26, 2016
Lowering Diabetes Risk: Those with a family history of diabetes can reduce their own risk of developing the disease by maintaining a daily habit of vigorous exercise.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005 Jun;68 Suppl1:S73-81.


July 12, 2016
Exercise and Brain Function: A number of studies have reported that bouts of exercise and exercise training programs benefit mental function. New research appears to be narrowing in on how this might work. During exercise, muscle tissue releases a specific protein factor into the blood that benefits parts of the brain involved in memory.
Cell Metab. 2016 Jun 21. pii: S1550-4131(16)30247-9.


July 20, 2016
Female Athlete Triad: Female athletes who chronically do not match their exercise energy expenditure with adequate calorie intake develop the three components of the Female Athlete Triad: Menstrual problems, weakened bones, and disordered eating. This can lead to impaired performance and long term health problems such as impaired bone health for life. There also appears to be an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Pediatrics. July 2016. [Epub ahead of print]


July 24, 2016
Essential Nutrients during Exercise: During endurance exercises like jogging, the first nutrient that runs low is water and the second is carbohydrate. For good endurance, stay hydrated during exercise and consume a balanced diet that includes high carbohydrate foods. Both chocolate milk and fruit drinks offer both nutrients.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Mar;41(3):709-31.


August 12, 2016
Exercise Placebo Effect: A new study found that those who expected exercise to provide benefits were more likely to have positive psychological responses to a single bout of exercise. This was confirmed by electroencephalogram measurements.
J Behav Med (2016). doi:10.1007/s10865-016-9781-3


August 26, 2016
Exercise or Diet for Heart Health: Weight loss generally improves cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight people. A new study found that weight lost by eating less, exercising more, or doing a combination of the two all had the same impact on reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors such as blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose. The next question is which one of these approaches is best at maintaining the reduced body weight.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jul 27. [Epub ahead of print]


October 12, 2016
Compulsive Exercise and Eating Disorders: People with anorexia nervosa often have strong compulsions to exercise. A recent study used a variety of methods to evaluate the association of compulsive exercise with anorexia. They found that high scores on the Compulsive Exercise Test were strongly related to anorexia nervosa. Compulsive exercise assessment may be helpful in the diagnosis of anorexia.
Int J Eat Disord. 2016 Oct 3.


October 17, 2016
Walking for Risk Reduction: A new analysis of walking data from 3388 adults indicates that both the number of steps taken and the pace of those steps contribute to reduction of indicators for cardiometabolic disease. A pace of about 100 steps per minute is considered to be a moderately intensive walking pace.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 Sep 23. [Epub ahead of print]


October 19, 2016
Nitrates and High Intensity Training: A study with young men tested the effects of supplementation with sodium nitrate prior to workouts during a 5-week high intensity training program. They found that the supplement increased their level of the muscle fiber type involved in higher intensity exercise (type IIa) when compared to participants who received a placebo supplement. Foods usually high in nitrates include spinach, beets, and carrots. However, the level of nitrate can vary greatly in these natural foods.
Front Physiol. 2016; 7: 233. Published online 2016 Jun 14.


December 3, 2016
Step to Health: Walking 30 minutes a day or 5,000 to 10,000 steps a day can benefit overall health. Why not ask Santa for a pedometer?
Sports Med. 2009;39(1):29-43.


December 4, 2016
Marathon Recovery: If you are participating in the Honolulu Marathon next Sunday, it is time to rest. Your best preparation includes muscle repair, recovery from training, and carbo-loading.
J Sports Sci. 2007;25 Suppl 1:S29-38.


December 9, 2016
Exercise and Immune Function: A review of studies on the effects of exercise on the function of the immune system indicates that exercise can both impair immune function and enhance it. Long duration, intense exercise can compromise the immune system, whereas regular moderate exercise seems to help it. The things that may help to counteract exercise-induced suppression of the immune function are adequate carbohydrate consumption during and after exercise and consuming a well-diversified diet that meets increased protein needs and vitamin and mineral needs.
Journal of Applied Physiology Published 1 December 2016


January 8, 2017
Hydration and Fitness: Adequate hydration is important for good health. Because exercise increases water needs, it is important to start exercise well hydrated and consume appropriate fluids during and after exercise to limit water and salt deficits.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Oct;18(5):457-72.


January 28, 2017
Caffeine and Muscles: Feel like a strong mug of coffee after that long run? It may not be a bad idea. A double-blind study with endurance athletes found that when caffeine was consumed with carbohydrate after exhaustive exercise, the caffeine boosted carbohydrate storage (glycogen) in muscles by 66%.
J Appl Physiol. 2008 Jul;105(1):7-13.


February 5, 2017
Spinach and Fitness: Spinach is not a good source of absorbable iron or calcium, but it does provide other beneficial substances. Recent studies show that the amount of nitrate in spinach is similar to amounts found to enhance performance of endurance exercise.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 Jan 15;48(2):342-7.


February 8, 2017
Exercise in Children: A study conducted in Finland with 136 children (57 boys and 79 girls) 6 to 8 years old found that those who spent little time doing moderate to vigorous intensity physical activities already had arteries the were measurably more stiff than the arteries of children who frequently participated in these activities. Increased arterial stiffness is considered to be an early sign of the development of cardiovascular disease.
Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2017 Jan 25:1-26.


February 13, 2017
Protein and Fitness: Physically fit women and men (age 30 to 65) participated in a 12-week training program that combined resistance, interval, stretching, and endurance training. The program improved multiple aspects of exercise performance and health. However, those who consumed a higher protein intake, (2 grams/kg body weight) that was spread throughout the day, experienced significantly greater improvement in a number of performance and health-related measures.
Growth Horm IGF Res. 2016 Oct 15.


March 9, 2017
Exercise and Supplementation in Older People: There is a strong tendency for people to lose muscle mass after age 60. A systematic review of studies on exercise and supplementation with things like protein, essential amino acids, and creatine found that exercise predictably had a positive effect on muscle size and function in healthy people over 60 years of age. Some studies reported benefits from various supplements taken during training programs. More exercise and supplementation studies are needed on people with various health problems. These people may be even more likely to benefit.
Osteoporos Int. 2017 Mar 1. [Epub ahead of print]


March 29, 2017
Exercise Benefits: All types of exercise have been shown to enhance various aspects of health, especially in older people. A new study found that the major beneficial cellular adaptations to 12 weeks of training were greater in those who did high intensity interval training compared to those who did resistance exercise (strength training).
Cell Metab. 2017 Mar 7;25(3):581-592.


April 4, 2017
Activity and Aging: Telomeres are cell structures that protect chromosomes from deterioration. They progressively shorten with age and reflect biological age more than chronological age. A study with almost 1500 women ages 64 to 95 (average 79) found that women with the least physical activity and most sitting time had shorter telomeres for their age. However, those who did a lot of sitting did not have shorter telomere length if they exercised for at least 30 minutes a day.
Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Jan 18. [Epub ahead of print]


April 9, 2017
Beetroot and Workouts: Beetroot juice has been shown to enhance various aspects of exercise performance, such as enabling a person to work out longer. This is due to the naturally high levels of nitrate. Borscht anyone?
J Appl Physiol. 2011 Mar;110(3):591-600.


April 12, 2017
Eating Before Exercise: A new study demonstrated what we would expect. Exercise in the fasted state and you will use more energy from body fat tissues than if you exercise a couple hours after consuming a high-calorie carbohydrate-rich breakfast. However, what ultimately results in fat loss is a negative calorie balance maintained over time. So, what you burn up during exercise is less important than how much you eat later to replace those calories - or not.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Mar 14: [Epub ahead of print]


April 13, 2017
Running and Longevity: An updated analysis of multiple large studies on exercise and longevity found that investing two hours a week into running, even slowly, was associated with an average increase in lifespan of a little over 3 years. The associated increase in lifespan plateaued at about four hours of running per week.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Mar 29. [Epub ahead of print]


April 30, 2017
Exercise and Heart Health: It is well known that staying fit with regular exercise can reduce the risk of having a heart attack and, in addition, can decrease damage to the heart should a heart attack occur. Recent studies with animals indicate that daily exercise increases the body's capacity to produce nitric oxide, a short-lasting molecule that stimulates blood vessels to dilate and allow more blood to flow to the heart and other parts of the body.
Circ Res. 2011 Apr 28. [Epub ahead of print]


June 9, 2017
Exercise and Intestinal Problems: Exercise of high intensity or very long duration can cause gastrointestinal problems in some people. “Exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome” is thought to be related to reduced blood flow to the intestines due to greater blood flow to the working muscles to meet increased oxygen demands and increased blood flow to the skin to enhance heat loss from the body. Some people are more susceptible to exercise-induced gastrointestinal problems than others and may need to moderate their exercise intensity and/or duration.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017;00:1–20.


June 23, 2017
Physical Activity in Adolescents: Using data collected between 2003 and 2006 in over 12,000 people, researchers found that the average activity level of those in their later teenage years was as low as those in their sixties. The teen years are an important stage of life to develop healthful lifestyle habits.
Prev Med. 2017;101:102-108.


July 14, 2017
Tour de France Nutrition: The Tour de France is one of the most demanding endurance events in the world. Currently at stage 13 of 21 stages, the cyclists will cover a total distance of 3,540 km (2200 miles) after completing all the stages. Research indicates that this requires consuming from 5000 to 8000 calories per day depending primarily on the variable demands of each stage and the body weight of the rider.
Int J Sports Med. 1989 May;10 Suppl 1:S32-40.


July 28, 2017
Diet and Exercise During Pregnancy: Although inadequate weight gain during pregnancy increases the risk of negative outcomes, so does excessive gain. A large review of multiple studies reports that pregnant women who consume a healthy diet and participate in regular moderate exercise are less likely to gain excessive weight, develop diabetes in pregnancy, or require a caesarean section.
BMJ 2017;358:j3119


July 29, 2017
Muscle and Regulating Blood Glucose: Muscle cells are insulin sensitive and can take up, utilize, and store glucose. Consequently, it makes sense that having more muscle mass as well as using muscles can improve the body's ability to handle blood sugar.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul 21. [Epub ahead of print]


August 5, 2017
Exercise and Building Muscle: Do you need to lift heavy weights to build muscle? New research says no. The study found that lifting lighter weights for enough repetitions to reach your limit is also effective at building muscle mass.
PLoS ONE, 2010; 5 (8): e12033.


September 3, 2017
Exercise and Calories: The "post-exercise calorie burn" appears to be most significant after vigorous exercise. In a new study, men who exercised for 45 minutes at a relatively high intensity expended an additional 190 calories on average during the 14 hours following the exercise.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: Sept 2011, V43 Issue 9 - pp 1643-1648


September 4, 2017
Importance of Getting Hydration Right: When athletes drink too much fluid during endurance events, it increases their risk of developing low blood sodium levels (hyponatremia) that can become life threatening. According to a recent survey, many endurance athletes may be drinking excessive amounts of fluid during events.
Br J Sports Med. 2011 Jun;45(8):646-9. Epub 2010 Sep 28.


September 14, 2017
Mortality and Being Sedentary: It is well established that being more sedentary increases mortality risk. In addition, new research indicates that long duration of sitting increases risk even for people who exercise regularly. It appears to be rather important to break up long periods of sitting with short breaks of moving around.
Ann Intern Med. 2017 Sep 12. [Epub ahead of print]


October 23, 2017
Walking: A common recommendation is to engage in more than 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity physical activity weekly. A new study indicates that regular walking even below the minimum recommended level also is associated with lower all-cause mortality compared with inactivity. Something is always better than nothing!
Am J Prev Med. October 19 2017. [Epub ahead of print]


November 3, 2017
Exercise Frequency: Exercise enhances muscle uptake of glucose independent of the effects of insulin. Consequently, it has been suggested that a bout of exercise is like having a shot of insulin in terms of lowering blood glucose. A new study in mice indicates that two bouts of exercise a day was significantly more effective than one bout per day at lowing blood glucose and reducing body fat levels.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017 Oct;25(10):1745-1753.


November 8, 2017
Exercise and Weight Loss in Elderly: During an 18-month weight loss program for people in their 60s, including exercise in the regimen clearly increased weight and fat loss. However, resistance exercise (weight training) was much more effective at preserving muscle tissues and maximizing fat loss.
Obesity, 2017; 25 (11): 1823-1829.